Category Archives: Pressure cooking

spiced apple muffin

spiced apple muffin

another experiment with flavours . . . apple + cinnamon + ginger 🙂

The Health Benefits of Two Simple Spices: Cinnamon and Ginger

Various forms of cinnamon or cinnamon bark, along with ginger and ginger root extracts are quite popular choices these days for people who take supplements or just keep a close eye on their daily food intake. Both of these common herbs have been used as flavor additives and medicinal foods for hundreds of years; only today is science beginning to focus on the ways in which these and other herbs affect human health and wellness.

Any professional or amateur cook does not consider a spice collection up to snuff unless it features both cinnamon and ginger. Cinnamon most often is sold as raw sticks or ground powder. Alone or combined with sugar in infinite ways, it appears in hundreds of restaurant and home-cooked foods as a flavor enhancer.

Ginger is another of the most common spice-rack regulars, though is less often used and not as well known to the average consumer outside of Asia. In India, China and the Mideast, however, ginger has achieved a status as both a food and a medicine, and populates kitchen shelves all over the world.

Browse any health food store and examine the ingredient labels of supplements. There, you’ll see many that contain cinnamon and ginger in varying amounts and from different sources. For those who are only familiar with these two herbs in their guise as spices, here is a brief list of their other uses, primarily as medicinal additives to supplements or as herbal tablets all by themselves.

Cinnamon

Cinnamon has been used as a spice for perhaps 2,000 years or more, and is even mentioned in the Old Testament and several other ancient texts as both a food flavoring and an aromatic scent.

Most of today’s cinnamon comes from Sri Lanka, India and Burma, with Mexico being the world’s largest importer of the herb.

Only about 1 percent of the cinnamon tree consists of the liquid called cinnamaldehyde. It is this liquid that is extracted and used as a common medicinal, and which contains all the natural chemicals that end up in supplements and tablets that appear in health food stores.

Scientific studies have proven cinnamon to be one of the most concentrated forms of natural antioxidants. It has so many of them in its cinnamaldehyde that the natural oil of the tree can be used as a long-term food preservative.

Cinnamon has been shown to offer anti-inflammatory properties in the human body and may be a natural way to reduce blood pressure, control cholesterol, diabetes and heart disease symptoms.

In some cases, cinnamon can help bring about lower blood-sugar levels in people who are insulin-resistant.

Some studies have shown that daily doses of cinnamon, in the range of 2 to 5 grams, can help adjust blood-sugar levels for those who suffer from Type 2 diabetes.

Though there is no definitive proof yet, some researchers are encouraged by preliminary trials and animal studies. In that research, cinnamon has demonstrated an ability to improve brain chemistry in a way that helps fight against both Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease.

Other animal studies have demonstrated cinnamon’s beneficial effect on immune response. In mice, the herb can activate a physiological process that helps prevent the spread of colon cancer. While no human studies have been done in this area, scientists are encouraged by the powerful effect that cinnamaldehyde has on a host of diseases and conditions.

Cinnamon is a key ingredient in many types of chocolate and specialty liquors.

Ginger

Like cinnamon, ginger has been used for centuries as both a food and a medicine. Since the underground part of the plant is the part used by humans, some refer to it as “ginger root.” Originating in China from earliest antiquity, the plant is currently used in hundreds of recipes the world over. The chemical substance that does all the hard work in ginger is called gingerol. It is this liquid that offers all the health benefits and flavors that the plant is known for.

The natural oil in ginger has been used for hundreds of years as a folk remedy for many forms of upset stomach, including seasickness, general nausea, and more recently as a way to control post-surgical vomiting.

Recent scientific studies have shown ginger to be an effective combatant against morning sickness (nausea) in pregnant women. Most people who take ginger for these reasons use about 1 gram, or slightly more, per day, though it is always a good idea to speak with a health care professional before taking any supplement, medicine or herbal extract.

Studies have also shown ginger to be a possible antidote for muscle soreness, especially when brought on by exercise. Instead of acting immediately, ginger appears to build up slowly in the body until it reaches a therapeutic level.

One study on human subjects who suffered from osteoarthritis clearly demonstrated the pain-reducing effect of ginger. Study participants who consumed ginger reported less pain and didn’t need to take as much medication as they did before using ginger.

Ginger, like cinnamon, has also been shown to offer several anti-diabetic advantages in human studies. Both blood sugar maintenance and heart disease prevention are areas where many scientific studies are being done to see just how ginger can work to remedy a range of ailments related to the heart and blood.

Other studies have demonstrated that ginger can markedly speed up the emptying of the stomach, which can be a remedy for chronic indigestion. When the stomach holds food for too long, the result is usually a severe bout of indigestion. Ginger’s ability to speed up the emptying process is likely the key to its beneficial effect related to indigestion.

The next time you consider purchasing any type of health supplement or superfood, check to see whether these two beneficial herbs are among the ingredients. Cinnamon and ginger are true workhorses of the health food genre, providing many medical benefits to those who choose to take them as stand-alone herbal tablets or as ingredients in multi-nutrient powders and drinks.

Source: healthylivingassociation.org/health-benefits-cinnamon-gin…

Posted by leonghong_loo on 2017-08-09 04:35:58

Tagged: , muffins , apples , cinnamon , candied ginger , ginger , breakfast , dessert , breakfast in singapore , spiced apple muffins

Vietnam – Hanoi – Dog Butcher – Machine to Remove The Dog Fur – 06

Vietnam - Hanoi - Dog Butcher - Machine to Remove The Dog Fur - 06

. . . mit dieser Maschine werden die Haare der Hunde entfernt
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Dog meat refers to the flesh and other edible parts derived from dogs. Historically, human consumption of dog meat has been recorded in many parts of the world, including East and Southeast Asia, West Africa, Europe, Oceania and the Americas.

In the 21st century, dog meat is consumed in many parts of China, Korea and Vietnam, parts of Switzerland, as well as parts of Europe, Americas, the African continent, such as Cameroon, Ghana and Liberia.

Today, a number of cultures view the consumption of dog meat to be a part of their traditional and day-to-day cuisine, while others – such as Western culture – consider consumption of dog to be a taboo, although they have been consumed in times of war and/or other hardships. It was estimated in 2014 that worldwide, 25 million dogs are eaten each year by humans.

DOG BREEDS USED FOR MEAT
NUREONGI
The Nureongi (Korean: 누렁읎) is a yellowish landrace from Korea. Similar to other native Korean dog breeds, such as the Jindo, nureongi are medium-sized spitz-type dogs, but are larger with greater musculature and a distinctive coat pattern. They are quite uniform in appearance, yellow hair and melanistic masks. Nureongi are most often used as a livestock dog, raised for its meat, and not commonly kept as pets.

HAWAIIAN POI
The Hawaiian Poi Dog or ʻīlio (ʻīlio mākuʻe for brown-furred Poi dogs) is an extinct breed of pariah dog from Hawaiʻi which was used by Native Hawaiians as a spiritual protector of children and as a source of food.

XOLOITZCUINTLE (MEXICAN HAIRLESS)
The Xoloitzcuintle, or Xolo for short, is a hairless breed of dog, found in toy, miniature and standard sizes.The Xolo also comes in a coated variety and all three sizes can be born to a single litter. It is also known as Mexican hairless dog in English speaking countries, is one of several breeds of hairless dog and has been used as a historical source of food for the Aztec Empire.

BY REGION
AFRICA
CAMEROON
Among the Vame people, domestic dogs are only eaten for specific rituals.

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO
Despite tests showing 156 dogs were infected with Ebola, the consumption of dog meat is no longer taboo.

GHANA
The Tallensi, the Akyim’s, the Kokis, and the Yaakuma, one of many cultures of Ghana, consider dog meat a delicacy. While the Mamprusi generally avoid dog meat, it is eaten in a "courtship stew" provided by a king to his royal lineage. Two Tribes in Ghana, Frafra and Dagaaba are particularly known to be "tribal playmates" and consumption of dog meat is the common bond between the two tribes. Every year around September, games are organised between these two tribes and the Dog Head is the trophy at stake for the winning tribe

MOROCCO
Islamic law bans the eating of dog meat as does the government of Morocco, however the consumption of dog meat still occurs particularly in poorer regions, often being passed off as other meats as was the case in 2013 and 2009 cases

NIGERIA
Dogs are eaten by various groups in some states of Nigeria, including Akwa Ibom, Cross River, Plateau, Ondo, Kalaba, Taraba and Gombe of Nigeria. They are believed to have medicinal powers.

In late 2014, the fear of contracting the Ebola virus disease from bushmeat led at least one major Nigerian newspaper to imply that eating dog meat was a healthy alternative. That paper documented a thriving trade in dog meat and slow sales of even well smoked bushmeat.

AMERICA
CANADA
It is legal to sell and serve dog meat, providing that it must be killed and gutted in front of federal inspectors. If a dog is killed out of the view of federal inspectors, the killing might involve cruelty, which would be a violation of the Criminal Code, and those convicted may be sentenced to up to 5 years in prison.

ANCIENT MEXICO
In the time of the Aztec Empire in what is now central Mexico, Mexican Hairless Dogs were bred, among other purposes, for their meat. Hernån Cortés reported when he arrived in Tenochtitlan in 1519, "small gelded dogs which they breed for eating" were among the goods sold in the city markets. These dogs, Xoloitzcuintles, were often depicted in pre-Columbian Mexican pottery. The breed was almost extinct in the 1940s, but the British Military Attaché in Mexico City, Norman Wright, developed a thriving breed from some of the dogs he found in remote villages.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
The term "dog" has been used as a synonym for sausage since 1884 and accusations that sausage makers used dog meat date to at least 1845. The belief that sausages contained dog meat was occasionally justified.

In the late 19th century, a cure for tuberculosis (then colloquially termed "consumption") using an exclusive diet of dog meat was tried. Reports of families eating dog meat out of choice, rather than necessity, were rare and newsworthy. Stories of families in Ohio and Newark, New Jersey who did so made it into editions of The New York Times in 1876 and 1885.

In the early 20th century, dog meat was consumed during times of meat shortage.

NATIVE AMERICANS
The traditional culture surrounding the consumption of dog meat varied from tribe to tribe among the original inhabitants of North America, with some tribes relishing it as a delicacy, and others (such as the Comanche) treating it as a forbidden food.

Native peoples of the Great Plains, such as the Sioux and Cheyenne, consumed it, but there was a concurrent religious taboo against the meat of wild canines.
During their 1803–1806 expedition, Meriwether Lewis and the other members of the Corps of Discovery consumed dog meat, either from their own animals or supplied by Native American tribes, including the Paiutes and Wah-clel-lah Indians, a branch of the Watlatas, the Clatsop, the Teton Sioux (Lakota), the Nez Perce Indians, and the Hidatsas. Lewis and the members of the expedition ate dog meat, except William Clark, who reportedly could not bring himself to eat dogs.

The Kickapoo people include puppy meat in many of their traditional festivals. This practice has been well documented in the Works Progress Administration "Indian Pioneer History Project for Oklahoma".

AUSTRALIA
It is legal to eat dogs in most States and Territories, except for South Australia. However, it is illegal to sell dog meat in any Australian State or Territory.

ARTIC AND ANTARCTIC
British explorer Ernest Shackleton and his Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition became trapped, and ultimately killed their sled dogs for food. Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen was known to have eaten sled dogs during his expedition to the South Pole. By eating some of the sled dogs, he required less human or dog food, thus lightening his load. When comparing sled dogs to ponies as draught animals he also notes:

"…there is the obvious advantage that dog can be fed on dog. One can reduce one’s pack little by little, slaughtering the feebler ones and feeding the chosen with them. In this way they get fresh meat. Our dogs lived on dog’s flesh and pemmican the whole way, and this enabled them to do splendid work. And if we ourselves wanted a piece of fresh meat we could cut off a delicate little fillet; it tasted to us as good as the best beef. The dogs do not object at all; as long as they get their share they do not mind what part of their comrade’s carcass it comes from. All that was left after one of these canine meals was the teeth of the victim – and if it had been a really hard day, these also disappeared."

Douglas Mawson and Xavier Mertz were part of the Far Eastern Party, a three-man sledging team with Lieutenant B.E.S. Ninnis, to survey King George V Land, Antarctica. On 14 December 1912 Ninnis fell through a snow-covered crevasse along with most of the party’s rations, and was never seen again. Mawson and Mertz turned back immediately. They had one and a half weeks’ food for themselves and nothing at all for the dogs. Their meagre provisions forced them to eat their remaining sled dogs on their 507 km return journey. Their meat was tough, stringy and without a vestige of fat. Each animal yielded very little, and the major part was fed to the surviving dogs, which ate the meat, skin and bones until nothing remained. The men also ate the dog’s brains and livers. Unfortunately eating the liver of sled dogs produces the condition hypervitaminosis A because canines have a much higher tolerance for vitamin A than humans do. Mertz suffered a quick deterioration. He developed stomach pains and became incapacitated and incoherent. On 7 January 1913, Mertz died. Mawson continued alone, eventually making it back to camp alive.

ASIA/PACIFIC
CHINA
Selling dog meat for consumption is legal in Mainland China and approximately 10 million dogs each year are slaughtered for consumption. The eating of dog meat in China dates back thousands of years. Dog meat (Chinese: 狗肉; pinyin: gǒu rĂČu) has been a source of food in some areas from around 500 BC and possibly even earlier. It has been suggested that wolves in southern China may have been domesticated as a source of meat. Mencius, the philosopher, talked about dog meat as being an edible, dietary meat. It is thought to have medicinal properties, and is especially popular in winter months in northern China, as it is believed to raise body temperature after consumption and promote warmth. Historical records have moreover shown how in times of food scarcities (as in war-time situations), dogs could also be eaten as an emergency food source.

Dog meat is sometimes called "fragrant meat" (銙肉 xiāng rĂČu) or "mutton of the earth" (ćœ°çŸŠ dĂŹ yĂĄng) in Mandarin Chinese and "3–6 fragrant meat" (Chinese: äž‰ć…­éŠ™è‚‰; Cantonese Yale: sĂ am luhk hĂšung yuhk) in Cantonese (3 plus 6 is 9 and the words "nine" and "dog" have close pronunciation. In Mandarin, "nine" and "dog" are pronounced differently).

In modern times, the extent of dog consumption in China varies by region, most prevalent in Guangdong, Yunnan and Guangxi, as well as the northern provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning. It is still common to find dog meat served in restaurants in Southern China, where dogs are specially raised on farms. However, there are instances of finding stolen pet meat on menus. Chinese netizens and the Chinese police intercepted trucks transporting caged dogs to be slaughtered in localities such as Chongqing and Kunming. In 2014, 11 people in the Hunan province were sentenced to prison for allegedly poisoning over 1,000 dogs and selling the poisonous meat to Yulin, Guangxi has held an annual festival of eating dog meat. This purportedly celebrates the summer solstice, however, in 2014, the municipal government published a statement that the festival is not a cultural tradition, rather, a commercial event held by restaurants and the public. Various dog meat dishes (and more recently, cats) are eaten, washed down by lychees wine. The festival in 2011 spanned 10 days, during which 15,000 dogs were consumed. Estimates of the number of dogs eaten during the festival range between 10 and 15 thousand. Festival organisers say that only dogs bred specifically for consumption are used, however, there are claims that some of the dogs purchased for slaughter and consumption are strays or stolen pets, as evidenced by their wearing collars. Some of the dogs eaten at the festival are burnt or boiled alive and there are reports that the dogs are sometimes clubbed or beaten to death in the belief that the increased adrenalin circulating in the dog’s body adds to the flavour of the meat. At the 2015 festival, there were long queues outside large (300-seat) eateries which sold the dog meat for around ÂŁ4 (€5.60) per kilogram. Prior to the 2014 festival, eight dogs (and their two cages) sold for 1,150 yuan ($185) and six puppies for 1,200 yuan. Prior to the 2015 festival, a protester bought 100 dogs for 7,000 yuan ($1,100; ÂŁ710). The animal rights NGO Best Volunteer Centre claims the city has more than 100 slaughterhouses, processing between 30 and 100 dogs a day. However, the Yulin Centre for Animal Disease Control and Prevention claims the city has only eight dog slaughterhouses selling approximately 200 dogs, although this increases to about 2,000 dogs during the Yulin festival. There are several campaigns to stop the festival; more than 3,000,000 people have signed petitions against it on Weibo (China’s version of Twitter) and a petition to stop the festival (addressed to the Chinese Minister of Agriculture, Chen Wu) reads "Do the humane thing by saying no to this festival and save the lives of countless dogs that will fall victim to this event – an event that will butcher, skin alive, beat to death etc. thousands of innocent dogs." Prior to the 2014 festival, doctors and nurses staff were ordered not to eat dog meat there, and local restaurants serving dog meat were ordered to cover the word "dog" on their signs and notices.

The movement against the consumption of cat and dog meat was given added impetus by the formation of the Chinese Companion Animal Protection Network (CCAPN). Expanded to more than 40 member societies, CCAPN in 2006 began organizing protests against eating dogs and cat, starting in Guangzhou and following up in more than ten other cities with a positive response from the public. Before the 2008 Beijing Olympics, officials ordered dog meat to be taken off the menu at its 112 official Olympic restaurants to avoid offending visitors from various nations who might have been concerned by the offering of dog meat.

In 2010, draft legislation was proposed to prohibit the consumption of dog meat. The legislation, however, was not expected to be enforced, making the consumption of dog meat illegal if it passed. In 2010, the first draft proposal of the legislation was introduced, with the rationale to protect animals from maltreatment. The legislation includes a measure to jail people for up to 15 days for eating dog meat. However, certain cultural food festivals continue to promote the meat. For example, in 2014, 10,000 dogs were killed for the Yulin dog eating festival.

As of the early 21st century, dog meat consumption is declining or disappearing. In 2014, dog meat sales decreased by a third compared to 2013. It was reported that in 2015, one of the most popular restaurants in Guangzhou serving dog meat was closed after the local government tightened regulations; the restaurant had served dog meat dishes since 1963. Other restaurants that served dog and cat meat dishes in the Yuancun and Panyu districts also stopped serving these in 2015.

HONG KONG
In Hong Kong, the Dogs and Cats Ordinance was introduced by the British Hong Kong Government on 6 January 1950. It prohibits the slaughter of any dog or cat for use as food, whether for mankind or otherwise, on pain of fine and imprisonment. In February 1998, a Hong Konger was sentenced to one month imprisonment and a fine of two thousand HK dollars for hunting street dogs for food. Four local men were sentenced to 30 days imprisonment in December 2006 for having slaughtered two dogs.

TAIWAN
In 2001, the Taiwanese government imposed a ban on the sale of dog meat, due to both pressure from domestic animal welfare groups and a desire to improve international perceptions, although there were some protests. In 2007, another law was passed, significantly increasing the fines to sellers of dog meat. However, animal rights campaigners have accused the Taiwanese government of not prosecuting those who continue to slaughter and serve dog meat at restaurants. Although the slaughter and consumption of dog meat is illegal in Taiwan, there are reports that suggest the practice continues as of 2011. In Taiwan, dog meat is called "fragrant meat" (Chinese: 銙肉; pinyin: xiāngrĂČu). In 2007, legislators passed a law to fine sellers of dog meat NT$250,000 (US$7,730). Dog meat is believed to have health benefits, including improving circulation and raising body temperature.

INDIA
In India, dog meat is eaten by certain communities in the Northeast Indian border states of Mizoram, Nagaland, and Manipur where it is considered to be a delicacy. These states border Burma and may have been influenced by Chinese culture and traditions.

INDONESIA
Indonesia is predominantly Muslim, a faith which considers dog meat, along with pork to be "haraam" (ritually unclean) and therefore do not eat it. However, dog meat is eaten by several of Indonesia’s non-Muslim minorities.

The consumption of dog meat is associated with the Minahasa culture of northern Sulawesi, Maluku culture, and the Bataks of northern Sumatra, where dog meat is considered a festive dish usually reserved for occasions such as weddings and Christmas.

Popular Indonesian dog-meat dishes are rica-rica, also called rintek wuuk or "RW", rica-rica waung, guk-guk, and "B1". On Java, there are several dishes made from dog meat, such as sengsu (tongseng asu), sate jamu, and kambing balap.

Dog consumption in Indonesia gained attention in United States where dog is a taboo food, during 2012 Presidential election when incumbent Barack Obama was pointed by his opponent to have eaten dog meat served by his Indonesian stepfather Lolo Soetoro during his stay in the country

JAPAN
The consumption of dog meat is not a feature of modern Japanese culture because Japanese people believe that certain dogs have special powers in their religion of Shintoism and Buddhism. Dog meat was consumed in Japan until 675 AD, when Emperor Temmu decreed a prohibition on its consumption during the 4th–9th months of the year. Normally a dog accompanied the emperor for battle, so it was believed that eating a dog gave emperors bad luck.[citation needed] In Japanese shrines certain animals are worshipped, such as dogs as it is believed they will give people a good luck charm. Animals are described as good luck in scrolls and Kakemono during the Kofun period, Asuka period and Nara period. According to Meisan Shojiki ƌrai (ćç”Łè«žè‰ČćŸ€æ„) published in 1760, the meat of wild dog was sold along with boar, deer, fox, wolf, bear, raccoon dog, otter, weasel and cat in some regions of Edo. ƌta Nampo recorded witnessing puppies being eaten in Satsuma Province in a dish called Enokoro Meshi (えぼころ飯).

KOREA
Gaegogi (ê°œêł êž°) literally means "dog meat" in Korean. The term itself, however, is often mistaken as the term for Korean soup made from dog meat, which is actually called bosintang (ëłŽì‹ íƒ•; èŁœèș«æčŻ, Body nourishing soup) (sometimes spelled "bo-shintang").

The consumption of dog meat in Korean culture can be traced through history. Dog bones[further explanation needed] were excavated in a neolithic settlement in Changnyeong, South Gyeongsang Province. A wall painting in the Goguryeo Tombs complex in South Hwangghae Province, a World Heritage site which dates from the 4th century AD, depicts a slaughtered dog in a storehouse. The Balhae people also enjoyed dog meat, and the modern-day tradition of canine cuisine seems to have come from that era.

Although their Mohe ancestors did not respect dogs, the Jurchen people began to respect dogs around the time of the Ming dynasty and passed this tradition on to the Manchu. It was prohibited in Jurchen culture to use dog skin, and forbidden for Jurchens to harm, kill, and eat dogs, as the Jurchens believed the "utmost evil" was the usage of dog skin by Koreans.

SOUTH KOREA
Dog meat is often consumed during the summer months and is either roasted or prepared in soups or stews. The most popular of these soups is bosintang and gaejang-guk, a spicy stew meant to balance the body’s heat during the summer months. This is thought to ensure good health by balancing one’s "Qi", the believed vital energy of the body. A 19th-century version of gaejang-guk explains the preparation of the dish by boiling dog meat with vegetables such as green onions and chili pepper powder. Variations of the dish contain chicken and bamboo shoots.

Over 100,000 tons[94] of dog meat, or 2.5 million dogs, are consumed annually in South Korea. Although a fair number of South Koreans (approximately 42% to 60%) have eaten dog meat at least once in their lifetime, only a small percentage of the population is believed to eat it on a regular basis.

The Ministry of Food and Drug Safety recognizes any edible product other than drugs as food. South Korean Food Sanitary Law (식품위생ëȕ) does not include dog meat as a legal food ingredient. In the capital city of Seoul, the sale of dog meat was outlawed by regulation on February 21, 1984 by classifying dog meat as ‘repugnant food’ (혐였식품), but the regulation was not rigorously enforced except during the 1988 Seoul Olympics. In 2001, the Mayor of Seoul announced there would be no extra enforcement efforts to control the sale of dog meat during the 2002 FIFA World Cup, which was partially hosted in Seoul. In March 2008, the Seoul Metropolitan Government announced its plan to put forward a policy suggestion to the central government to legally classify slaughter dogs as livestock, reigniting debate on the issue.

The primary dog breed raised for meat, the Nureongi (누렁읎), or Hwangu (í™©ê”Ź); is a non-specific, mixed breed.

There is a large and vocal group of Koreans (consisting of a number of animal welfare groups) who are against the practice of eating dogs. Popular television shows like ‘I Love Pet’ have documented, in 2011 for instance, the continued illegal sale of dog meat and slaughtering of dogs in suburban areas. The program also televised illegal dog farms and slaughterhouses, showing the unsanitary and horrific conditions of caged dogs, several of which were visibly sick with severe eye infections and malnutrition. However, despite this growing awareness, there remain some in Korea that do not eat or enjoy the meat, but do feel that it is the right of others to do so, along with a smaller but still vocal group of pro-dog cuisine people who want to popularize the consumption of dog in Korea and the rest of the world. A group of pro-dog meat individuals attempted to promote and publicize the consumption of dog meat worldwide during the run-up to the 2002 FIFA World Cup, co-hosted by Japan and South Korea, which prompted retaliation from animal rights campaigners and prominent figures such as Brigitte Bardot to denounce the practice. Opponents of dog meat consumption in South Korea are critical of the eating of dog meat, as some dogs are beaten, burnt or hanged to make their meat more tender.

The restaurants that sell dog meat, often exclusively, do so at the risk of losing their restaurant licenses. A case of a dog meat wholesaler, charged with selling dog meat, arose in 1997 where an appeals court acquitted the dog meat wholesaler, ruling that dogs were socially accepted as food. According to the National Assembly of South Korea, more than 20,000 restaurants, including the 6,484 registered restaurants, served soups made from dog meat in Korea in 1998. In 1999 the BBC reported that 8,500 tons of dog meat were consumed annually, with another 93,600 tons used to produce a medicinal tonic called gaesoju (ê°œì†ŒìŁŒ).

NORTH KOREA
Daily NK reported that the North Korean government included dog meat in its new list of one hundred fixed prices, setting a fixed price of 500 won per kilogram in early 2010.

NEW ZEALAND
Dog meat is rarely eaten in New Zealand but has been said to be becoming more popular as it is not illegal as long as the dog is humanely killed.

A Tongan man living in New Zealand caused public outrage when he was caught cooking his pet dog in his backyard; this event led to calls for change in the law.

PHILIPPINES
The “Malays”, a sea-faring population that is now scattered throughout South-East Asia, introduced the practice of domesticating dogs for meat consumption to the indigenous population of the Philippines.

In the capital city of Manila, Metro Manila Commission Ordinance 82-05 specifically prohibits the killing and selling of dogs for food. Generally however, the Philippine Animal Welfare Act 1998 prohibits the killing of any animal other than cattle, pigs, goats, sheep, poultry, rabbits, carabaos, horses, deer and crocodiles, with exemptions for religious, cultural, research, public safety and/or animal health reasons. Nevertheless, the consumption of dog meat is not uncommon in the Philippines, reflected in the occasional coverage in Philippine newspapers,.

The Province of Benguet specifically allows cultural use of dog meat by indigenous people and acknowledges this might lead to limited commercial use.

Asocena is a dish primarily consisting of dog meat originating from the Philippines.

In the early 1980s, there was an international outcry about dog meat consumption in the Philippines after newspapers published photos of Margaret Thatcher, then British Prime Minister, with a dog carcass hanging beside her on a market stall. The British Government discussed withdrawing foreign aid and other countries, such as Australia, considered similar action. To avoid such action, the Filipino government banned the sale of dog meat, despite dog meat being the third most consumed meat, behind pork and goat. The ban eventually became totally disregarded, although it was reinstated by President Ramos in 1998 in the Animal Welfare Act (Republic Act 8485).

POLYNESIA
Dogs were historically eaten in Tahiti and other islands of Polynesia, including Hawaii at the time of first European contact. James Cook, when first visiting Tahiti in 1769, recorded in his journal, "few were there of us but what allow’d that a South Sea Dog was next to an English Lamb, one thing in their favour is that they live entirely upon Vegetables". Calwin Schwabe reported in 1979 that dog was widely eaten in Hawaii and considered to be of higher quality than pork or chicken. When Hawaiians first encountered early British and American explorers, they were at a loss to explain the visitors’ attitudes about dog meat. The Hawaiians raised both dogs and pigs as pets and for food. They could not understand why their British and American visitors only found the pig suitable for consumption. This practice seems to have died out, along with the native Hawaiian breed of dog, the unique Hawaiian Poi Dog, which was primarily used for this purpose. The consumption of domestic dog meat is still commonplace in the Kingdom of Tonga, and has also been noted in expatriate Tongan communities in New Zealand, Australia, and the United States.

THAILAND
Unlike other countries where dog meat consumption has been shown to have historical precedents, Thailand does not have a mainstream culture of dog eating. However, in recent years, the consumption of dog meat in certain areas of the country, especially in certain northeastern provinces like Sakon Nakhon and Nakhon Phanom, notably Sakon Nakhon province’s Tha Rae sub-district, which has been identified as the main center for the country’s illegal, albeit lucrative, dog meat trade, has attracted widespread attention from the Thai population and local news media. This has led large groups of Thai citizens to become increasingly vocal against the consumption of dog meat and the selling of dogs that are transported through Laos to neighbouring Mekong countries, including Vietnam and China. According to news reports, a considerable number of these dogs continue to be stolen from people’s homes by illegal carriers. This was also the case following the 2011 Thailand Floods. Dubbed as the country’s ‘Trade of Shame’, Thai netizens, in particular, have now formed several informal animal welfare and rescue groups in an attempt to stop this illegal trade, with the collective attitude being that ‘Dogs are not food’. Established not-for-profit animal charity organizations like the Soi Dog Foundation have also been active in raising awareness and working in conjunction with local Thai authorities to rehabilitate and relocate dogs rescued from trucks attempting to transport live dogs across the border to nearby countries. Significantly, this issue has strengthened the nation’s animal rights movement, which continues to call on the Thai government to adopt a stricter and more comprehensive animal rights law to prevent the maltreatment of pets and cruelty against all animals.

TIMOR LESTE
Dog meat is a delicacy popular in East Timor.

UZBEKISTAN
Although not commonly eaten, dog meat is sometimes used in Uzbekistan in the belief that it has medicinal properties.

VIETNAM
Dog meat is consumed more commonly in the northern part of Vietnam than in the south, and can be found in special restaurants which specifically serve dog meat. Dog meat is believed to bring good fortune in Vietnamese culture. It is seen as being comparable in consumption to chicken or pork. In urban areas, there are sections that house a lot of dog meat restaurants. For example, on Nhat Tan Street, TĂąy Hồ District, Hanoi, many restaurants serve dog meat. Groups of customers, usually male, seated on mats, will spend their evenings sharing plates of dog meat and drinking alcohol. The consumption of dog meat can be part of a ritual usually occurring toward the end of the lunar month for reasons of astrology and luck. Restaurants which mainly exist to serve dog meat may only open for the last half of the lunar month. Dog meat is also believed to raise the libido in men. The Associated Press reported in October 2009 that a soaring economy has led to the booming of dog restaurants in Hanoi, and that this has led to a proliferation of dognappers. Reportedly, a 20 kilograms dog can sell for more than $100 — roughly the monthly salary of an average Vietnamese worker. The Vietnamese Catholic Church is a major consumer of dog meat during the Christmas holiday. There is a large smuggling trade from Thailand to export dogs to Vietnam for human consumption.

In 2009, dog meat was found to be a main carrier of the Vibrio cholerae bacterium, which caused the summer epidemic of cholera in northern Vietnam.

Prior to 2014, more than 5 million dogs were killed for meat every year in Vietnam according to the Asia Canine Protection Alliance. However, there are indications that the desire to eat dog meat in Vietnam is waning. Part of the decline is thought to be due to an increased number of Vietnamese people keeping dogs as pets, as their incomes have risen in the past few decades. “[People] used to raise dogs to guard the house, and when they needed the meat, they ate it. Now they keep dog as pets, imported from China, Japan, and other countries. One pet dog might cost hundreds of millions of dong [100 million dong is $4,677].”

EUROPE
BRITAIN & IRELAND
Eating dog meat is considered entirely taboo, as is common with most European societies, and has been taboo for many centuries outside of times of scarcity such as sieges or famines. However, early Brittonic and Irish texts which date from the early Christian period suggest that dog meat was sometimes consumed but possibly in ritual contexts such as Druidic ritual trance. Sacrificial dog bones are often recovered from archaeological sites however they were typically treated differently, as were horses, from other food animals. One of Ireland’s mythological heroes Cuchulainn, had two geasa, or vows, one of which was to avoid the meat of dogs. The breaking of his geasa led to his death in the Irish mythology.

BELGIUM
A few meat shops sold dog meat during the German occupation of Belgium in World War I, when food was extremely scarce. According to The New York Times, in the 19th century the Council of the Veterinary School of Belgium occasionally recommended dog meat for human consumption after being properly inspected.

FRANCE
Although consumption of dog meat is uncommon in France, and is now considered taboo, dog meat has been consumed in the past by the Gauls. The earliest evidence of dog consumption in France was found at Gaulish archaeological sites, where butchered dog bones were discovered. French news sources from the late 19th century carried stories reporting lines of people buying dog meat, which was described as being "beautiful and light." During the Siege of Paris (1870–1871), there were lines at butcher’s shops of people waiting to purchase dog meat. Dog meat was also reported as being sold by some butchers in Paris, 1910.

GERMANY
Dog meat has been eaten in every major German crisis since, at least, the time of Frederick the Great, and is commonly referred to as "blockade mutton". In the early 20th century, high meat prices led to widespread consumption of horse and dog meat in Germany.

The consumption of dog meat continued in the 1920s. In 1937, a meat inspection law targeted against trichinella was introduced for pigs, dogs, boars, foxes, badgers, and other carnivores. Dog meat has been prohibited in Germany since 1986.

SAXONY
In the latter part of World War I, dog meat was being eaten in Saxony by the poorer classes because of famine conditions.

THE NETHERLANDS
During severe meat shortages coinciding with the German occupation from 1940 to 1945, sausages found to have been made of dog meat were confiscated by authorities in the Netherlands.

POLAND
While dog meat is not eaten, some rural areas of Poland especially Lesser Poland, dog fat can be made into lard, which by tradition is believed to have medicinal properties – being good for the lungs, for instance. Since the 16th century, fat from various animals, including dogs, was used as part of folk medicine, and since the 18th century, dog fat has had a reputation as being beneficial for the lungs. It is worth noting that the consumption of such meat is considered taboo in Polish culture, also making lard out of dogs’ fat is illegal. In 2009, a scandal erupted when a farm near Częstochowa was discovered rearing dogs to be rendered down into lard. According to Grazyna Zawada, from Gazeta Wyborcza, there were farms in Czestochowa, Klobuck, and in the Radom area, and in the decade from 2000 to 2010 six people producing dog lard were found guilty of breaching animal welfare laws (found guilty of killing dogs and animal cruelty) and sentenced to jail. As of 2014 there have been new cases prosecuted.

SWITZERLAND
Dogs, as well as cats, are eaten regularly by farmers in rural areas for personal consumption. While commercial slaughter and sale of dog meat is illegal, cultural attitudes toward slaughtering of animals for meat is traditionally liberal in Switzerland. The favorite type of meat comes from a dog related to the Rottweiler and consumed as ‘mostbrockli’ a form of marinated meat. Animals are slaughtered by butchers and either shot or bludgeoned.

In his 1979 book Unmentionable Cuisine, Calvin Schwabe described a Swiss dog meat recipe gedörrtes Hundefleisch served as paper-thin slices, as well as smoked dog ham, Hundeschinken, which is prepared by salting and drying raw dog meat.

It is illegal in Switzerland to commercially produce food made from dog meat, or to produce such food for commercial purposes.

WIKIPEDIA

Posted by asienman on 2013-10-16 18:02:47

Tagged: , Vietnam , Hanoi , Dog Butcher , asienman-photography

Slow simmered soup

Slow simmered soup

Slow simmered soup is a time-honored Chinese tradition to take care of a loved one when they are sick. Unfortunately, I don’t really care too much for most of the Chinese soup recipes. So I’m making Rachel something with a very American twist: Chicken Noodle Soup.

Here, the odds and ends from the mirepoix is being simmered in filtered water with a stewing chicken and some pork bones for about 4 hours, with a pinch of sea salt, a few bay leaves, a few peppercorns, and a splash of soy sauce. Dad blew out a gasket on the pressure cooker – so I’m doing this the traditional way. Personally, I think the product I get is different (Maybe less overextraction of … stuff from the bones, which I don’t know if it’s a good thing or not) slow simmered vs pressure-cooked. The result is then triple-filtered through a paper towel and a sieve to remove any oil and scum.

Posted by ttstam on 2009-08-31 07:21:05

Tagged: , Rachels’ meals , Terence , geek in the kitchen , hospital food , made with love

mater_paneer_recipe

mater_paneer_recipe

Put the MAGGI Bhuna Masala in a pressure cooker and stir fry for minute, add the turmeric powder, red chilli powder and coriander powder and fry for another minute……

Posted by twisterthoughts on 2009-04-30 11:36:39

Tagged: , Indian Recipe , Indian Recipe online , India Food Recipe , Matar Paneer recipe online , Recipe from India , Free Recipe , How to cook Matar Paneer , Recipes Online –

eric whitaker arizona

eric whitaker arizona

Center Healthy Diet Pointer

Mass management and also normal workout are critical for keeping your cardiovascular system in figure– however the food you eat may matter equally a lot. A heart-healthy diet may decrease your threat of heart problem or perhaps movement by 80 %. By knowing which meals and also procedures of food preparation are actually healthiest for your soul, you might can avoid or perhaps handle cardiovascular disease together with the high blood stress, and also take increased control over the high quality as well as size of your way of life.
Within this Post:.

You could protect against heart ailment.
Remove filled and trans fats.
Pick meals that lesser blood cholesterol.
Stay away from salt and processed meals.
Revitalize house cooking.
Concentrate on high-fiber foods items.
Management portion size– as well as your mass.

Print this! Typical Content SizeLarger Words SizeLargest Content Measurements.
You could take steps to avoid heart problem.

Cardiovascular disease could be the leading fantastic of people, however that doesn’t imply you can’t shield your own good. Apart from work out, bewaring concerning which you consume– and also what you do not eat– may aid you decrease blood cholesterol, control blood stress as well as blood glucose levels, and also keep a well-balanced mass. If you have actually presently been pinpointed along with cardiovascular disease or possess higher cholesterol levels or perhaps blood stress, a heart-smart eating plan may assist you far better take care of these issues, reducing your hazard for cardiac arrest.

Improving your nutrition is a significant action toward stopping cardiovascular disease, but you might feel not sure where to begin. Have a glance at the significant photo: your general eating patterns are more important compared to consuming over specific foods items. No singular food can create you amazingly healthy, so your aim may be to combine a selection of healthy and balanced foods cooked in healthy methods into your nutrition, and also create these habits your fresh way of living.
Eat Far more.

Eat Less.

Healthy fats: raw nuts, tawny oil, fish oils, flax seeds, or even avocados.

Trans fats from partly hydrogenated or perhaps deep-fried foods; filled fatty tissues from whole-fat milk or red food.

Nutrients: multicolored fruits together with the vegetables– frosted or perhaps clean, equipped without butter.

Packaged foods items of any kind, especially those high in sodium.

Nutrient: cereals, breads, together with the noodles made because of whole grains or perhaps vegetables.

White or even egg breadstuffs, granola-type cereals, refined noodles or rice.

Omega 3 as well as protein: fish and also shellfish, poultry.

Red meat, sausage, sausage, fried poultry.

Calcium as well as protein: Egg dress uniforms, egg substitutes, shave or perhaps 1 % milk, nonfat or low-fat cheeses or even natural yogurt.

Egg yolk sacs, entire or 2 per-cent milk, entire milk goods like cheese or natural yogurt.
Soul healthy diet tips: Eliminate saturated and trans fatty tissues.

Both styles of fatty tissue raise your LDL, or even "bad" cholesterol degree, which may enhance your danger for heart attack and also stroke. Always keep these causes in mind as you prepare as well as create food items selections– and also understand just how to avoid all of them.

Limitation solid fatty tissue. Lower the quantity of sound fatty tissues like butter, margarine, or perhaps shortening you include in food items when food preparation or providing. Rather than food preparation using butter, as an example, flavor your dishes with herbs or lemon liquid. You could additionally restrict sturdy fatty tissue by cutting fat off your meat or selecting leaner proteins.
Substitute. Swap out high-fat foods items for their lower-fat versions. Leading your cooked spud, for instance, with condiment or perhaps low-fat yogurt instead of butter, or perhaps utilize low-sugar fruit spread on your toast as an alternative of margarine. When cooking, use liquid oils like canola, olive, safflower, or sunflower, as well as substitute both egg cell whites for one entire egg cell in a dish.
Be actually label-savvy. Check meals marks on any prepared foods. A lot of snacks, even those designated "minimized fatty tissue," might be made using oils containing trans fats. One idea that a meals possesses some trans fatty tissue is actually the expression "partly hydrogenated." And also seek hidden fat; refried beans might have lard, or breakfast grains might possess significant quantities of fatty tissue.
The ideal technique to keep away from filled or perhaps trans fatty tissues is to transform your way of life techniques. Rather of nicks, treat on fruit or perhaps vegetables.

Not all fats misbehave for your heart.

While filled as well as trans fats are actually barricades to a well-balanced heart, unsaturated fats are necessary permanently wellness. You merely need to learn the variation. "Good" fats consist of:.

Omega 3 Fatty Acids. Greasy fish like salmon, trout, or herring and flax seed, canola oil, together with the walnuts all contain polyunsaturated fatty tissues that are important for the physique.
Omega 6 Fatty Acids. Vegetable oils, soy nuts, together with the lots of types of seeds all consist of healthy and balanced fats.
Monounsaturated fatty tissues. Almonds, cashews, peanuts, pecans, and butters made from these nuts, along with coconuts, are actually all wonderful origins of "good" fatty tissue.

Center healthy eating plan suggestions: Pick meals that reduced blood cholesterol.

Unhealthy cholesterol levels improve your danger for heart problem, and so always keeping yours low is actually vital to a healthier core. Your nutrition is actually core to regulating your cholesterol levels. Some foods items could in fact lower your cholesterol levels, while others simply make issues worse.

Avoid saturated or even trans fats. Foods containing higher degrees of saturated trans or even fatty tissues fats– including potato chips and packaged desserts– can improve your blood cholesterol degrees so much more significantly than cholesterol levels- containing foods like eggs. Filled fat and trans fat both increase LDL ("harmful") blood cholesterol. Trans thriving decreases your degrees of HDL ("great") blood cholesterol, which can put you at improved cardiovascular danger.
Opt for foods plentiful in unsaturated fats, nutrient, and also healthy protein. The best meals for reducing cholesterol levels are slow cooked oatmeal, fish, walnuts (and also other nuts), olive oil, together with the foods reinforced using sterols or even stanols– compounds found in flowers that help block the immersion of cholesterol levels.
Bear in mind that tags can be outwiting. Browsing food items tags can normally be complicated given that packaged meals along with tags like "blood cholesterol free of cost" or "low cholesterol" aren’t essentially heart-healthy; they might perhaps even have cholesterol levels that’s heart-risky. Stay with fundamentals whenever achievable: fruit, veggies, nuts, and also lean proteins.

Lowering your cholesterol using fish or fish oil supplements.

By including fish like or perhaps herring to your diet twice a full week, you may dramatically lower your cholesterol levels, as well as therefore your hazard for cardiovascular disease. Fish consist of omega-3 oily acids, which function like superheroes, doing kindness for your cardiovascular system– together with the your entire body.
Cardiovascular system well-balanced nutrition recommendations: Prevent sodium and also refined meals.

Consuming a number of salt may add to higher blood pressure, which is a huge danger things for heart attack. Reducing the salt in your meals is a big aspect of a heart-healthy eating plan. The American Cardiovascular system Organization recommends just pertaining to a teaspoon of sodium a time for a grownup. That may seem alarmingly little, however there are in fact several painless– even tasty– techniques to lower your salt consumption.

Lessen canned or perhaps procedured foods items. Much of the sodium you eat arises from canned or perhaps processed foods like soups or held up dinners– even fowl or different foods often have salt extrad throughout handling. Eating new foods items, trying to find saltless meats, together with the creating your very own soups or perhaps mishmashes may substantially reduce your salt ingestion.
Chef in your house, making use of spices for flavor. Preparing for on your own allows you to get additional control over your sodium ingestion. Use the numerous scrumptious options to salt. Strive new natural herbs like tulsi, thyme, or even chives. In the dried flavors alley, you could find substitutes such as allspice, bay turns, or cumin to flavor your food without salt.
Alternative lessened salt variations, or even salt alternatives. Choose your condiments and packaged foods properly, searching for foods labeled salt cost-free, low sodium, or perhaps saltless. More efficiently however,, utilize new active ingredients together with the cook without sodium.

The SPRINKLE eating plan for reducing blood tension.

The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, or even SPRINKLE diet, is a specially made eating plan to assist you lesser your blood pressure, which is actually a major root cause of high blood pressure together with the movement. To find out more, download the booklet through the National Cardiovascular system, Bronchi, together with the Blood Principle discovered in the Assets and References part listed here.
Heart well-balanced diet regimen suggestions: Revive residence food preparation.

It’s extremely hard to consume right for your heart when you are actually eating out a great deal, buying in, or consuming microwave suppers and also additional processed meals. The great headlines is that you could know to create fast, heart meals at residence. This’s much simpler together with the much less lengthy compared to you could assume.
Heart-healthy grocery purchasing as well as stocking.

Generating a heart-friendly diet starts along with stocking your fridge along with well-balanced together with the available meals. Ready a list just before you head to the shop or perhaps agriculturalist’s market, and also leave a little precious time after your vacation to implement your own good game success during the week.
Consider tags.

While scanning the aisles of a supermarket in the UNITED STATE, seek foods items featuring the American Heart Organization’s heart-check smudge to find heart-healthy foods. This logo design means that the food has actually been actually licensed to accommodate the United states Center Organization’s criteria for filled fatty tissue and also blood cholesterol. In Australia, seek the Center Groundwork Tick.

American citizen Soul Affiliation.

American Soul Association.

Australian Heart Foundation.

Australian Soul Base.

Make healthy alternatives. Select replacements like 1 % or shaved milk as an alternative of entire milk, soft margarine for butter, as well as lean meats like chicken together with the fish in area of ribs or ground food. These replacements can spare you a whole entire day’s worth of filled fatty tissue.
Make meals ready-to-eat. When you make well-balanced meals uncomplicated to grab throughout your bustling week, you’re far more most likely to remain heart-healthy. When you arrive house through grocery store buying, slashed up veggies together with the fruits together with the keep all of them in the fridge, all set for the upcoming meal or even when you are searching for a ready-to-eat snack.
Usage your fridge. Make healthy and balanced consuming much simpler by freezing heart-healthy foods in individual sections. Freeze fruits like strawberries, grapes, and also orange slices to make them even more enjoyable to eat for children. Be mindful with section dimensions: the advised serving of prepared food is actually about the measurements of a deck of playing cards, while a serving of noodles should concern the measurements of a baseball.

Heart-healthy cooking suggestions.
Healthy and balanced Recipes Could Save Funds.

You get far better command over the nutritional content and also the total healthfulness of the foods items you eat when you prepare as well as cook foods at residence. An included incentive: you may likewise spare money.

Generate a library of heart-healthy dishes. Squirrel away on heart-healthy recipe books and dishes for food preparation suggestions. The web is full of meals blogs and sites devoted to healthy and balanced food preparation approaches and dishes, and a nearby collection can be a great source for recipe books as effectively.
Make use of heart-healthy food preparation approaches. Equally as significant since choosing well-balanced foods at the supermarket is how you cook those foods items into healthy and balanced meals. Make use of low-fat approaches: you can easily cook, broil, microwave, roast, steam, poach, softly rouse fry, or sauté– using a small quantity of vegetable or perhaps olive oil, lessened salt broth, and flavors.
Chef simply two times a week together with the make food items for the entire full week. Preparing healthy and balanced food items ahead of time this way is maybe the most time-saving, money-saving, together with the heart-saving tactic available.

Center well-balanced diet plan suggestions: Pay attention to high-fiber foods items.

An eating plan higher in nutrient could lower "bad" blood cholesterol and also give nutrients that can easily aid shield versus heart illness. By filling out on entire grains, veggies, together with the fruits, you can easily have many of the fiber you’ll need, meanings you’ll also be actually lowering your hazard of heart condition.
Opt for whole grains.

Processed or processed meals are actually lesser in nutrient content, and so create whole grains an intrinsic component of your diet plan. There are numerous straightforward methods to extra entire grains to your foods.

Morning meal much better. For breakfast pick a high-fiber morning meal grain– one using five or even even more grams of fiber each serving. Or add a handful of tablespoons of unprocessed wheat or grain bran to your favored grain.
Attempt a fresh grain. Practice with wild rice, untamed rice, barley, whole-wheat noodles, as well as bulgur. These options are actually much higher in nutrient compared to their even more mainstream versions– as well as you may find you appreciate their preferences.
In yeast breads, use a little even more yeast or perhaps let the dough surge longer. Attempt adding crushed wheat bran grain or even raw wheat or grain bran to buns, cakes, and cookies.
Extra flax seed. Flax seeds are actually small dark seeds that are actually higher in fiber and also omega-3 greasy acids, which may decrease your complete blood cholesterol levels. You may grind the seeds in a coffee mill or food mill and rouse a tsp of all of them in to natural yogurt, applesauce, or sought-after cereal.

Consume a variety of vegetables and fruits.

Most vegetables and fruits are low in calories together with the high in fiber, making all of them center healthy. You can utilize a couple of the following strategies to make consuming fruits and veggies part of your diet plan every time.

Always keep vegetables and fruit at your fingertips. Wash and trimmed fruit as well as veggies and place all of them in your refrigerator for well-balanced as well as easy treats. Decide on formulas that include these high-fiber elements, like vegetable stir-fries or even salad.
Combine veggies into your food preparation. Include pre-cut fresh or perhaps frozen veggies to dressings and soups. For instance, mix cut frozen cabbages in to equipped spaghetti sauce or shake fresh child carrots in to stews.
Consume even more grains, greens, and lentils. Incorporate renal system beans to prerecorded soup or even a green salad.
Make snacks matter. Fresh and dried fruit, raw veggies, together with the whole-grain biscuits are actually all excellent techniques to incorporate nutrient at snack time. A periodic handful of nuts is actually additionally a well-balanced, high-fiber treat.

Center well-balanced eating plan suggestions: Control portion measurements– as well as your mass.

Gaining or carrying excess fat implies that your heart ought to work harder, as well as this typically leads to high blood stress– a significant trigger of heart disease. Reaching a healthy and balanced physique weight is actually key to lessening your threat of heart illness.

Understand serving sizes. An offering dimension is a certain quantity of food items, described by popular dimensions such as ounces, items, or cups– as well as a healthy serving size may be a property smaller compared to you are actually made use of to. The highly recommended serving dimension for pasta is 1/2 cup, while an offering of fish, chicken, or even food is 2 to 3 ounces (57-85 grams). Judging serving size is a discovered ability, therefore you might require to make use of measuring mugs, spoons, together with the a food items scale to aid.
Eyeball it. Once you possess a better idea of the things an offering should be actually, you may estimate your portion. You can make use of frequent materials for referral; for instance, an offering of pasta needs to concern the dimension of a ball (somewhat more compact compared to a cricket ball), while an offering of fish, food, or perhaps chick is regarding the measurements as well as thickness of a deck of cards.
Be careful of bistro portions. Portions offered in bistros are actually commonly much more than anybody demands. Split an entrée with your eating companion, or even take half your meal house for tomorrow’s lunch time.

No single food items may make you magically well-balanced, and so your objective can be to integrate a range of healthy foods items cooked in well-balanced methods into your eating plan, and make these habits your new way of living.
The best meals for lowering cholesterol levels are actually oat meal, fish, walnuts (together with the other nuts), olive oil, and also foods reinforced using stanols or sterols– substances found in plants that aid shut out the absorption of cholesterol.
Browsing food items labels can often be actually complexed since packaged foods items using tags like "cholesterol levels complimentary" or perhaps "low cholesterol levels" may not be automatically heart-healthy; they may perhaps even have cholesterol that is actually heart-risky. While checking the church aisles of a grocery store in the U.S., look for foods items showing the American citizen Heart Association’s heart-check smudge to identify heart-healthy foods. Just as essential as picking healthy foods items at the grocery shop is exactly how you prepare those meals into healthy and balanced meals.

Posted by Eric Whitaker Phoenix Arizona on 2013-05-12 22:22:46

Tagged:

_MG_5431

_MG_5431

Sirop d’Ă©rable
Sirop d’érable du QuĂ©bec
Fabrication du sirop d’Ă©rable par les AmĂ©rindiens en Nouvelle-France (XVIIIe siĂšcle) par Joseph-François Lafitau.

Le sirop d’Ă©rable est produit Ă  partir de l’eau d’Ă©rable recueillie au dĂ©but du printemps et qui est ensuite concentrĂ©e par Ă©bullition. L’eau d’Ă©rable est distincte de la sĂšve d’Ă©rable qui arrive en fin de printemps et qui produit un sirop d’un goĂ»t amer dont personne ne veut. L’Ă©bullition de l’eau d’Ă©rable contenant de la sĂšve d’Ă©rable produit un sirop beaucoup plus foncĂ© qui conduit rapidement Ă  l’oxydation permanente des bassins d’Ă©bullition qui doivent Ă  ce moment ĂȘtre remplacĂ©s et c’est pour cette raison que la montĂ© de la sĂšve dans l’eau d’Ă©rable est le signe de la fin de la saison des sucres. La rĂ©colte de l’eau d’Ă©rable est aussi nommĂ©e l’acĂ©riculture. Le sirop d’Ă©rable est produit dans les forĂȘts du nord-est de l’AmĂ©rique du Nord (surtout au QuĂ©bec, mais aussi en Ontario, dans les provinces maritimes du Canada et en Nouvelle-Angleterre), et se vend aujourd’hui partout dans le monde, en particulier au Japon (principal importateur).

La mĂ©thode de production du sirop d’Ă©rable Ă©tait dĂ©jĂ  connue et maĂźtrisĂ©e par les populations autochtones du Canada lors de l’arrivĂ©e des EuropĂ©ens. On s’en servait en particulier comme aliment tonique, au printemps. De nombreuses lĂ©gendes amĂ©rindiennes mettent en scĂšne le sirop d’Ă©rable1.

Aujourd’hui, la consommation de sirop d’Ă©rable est gĂ©nĂ©ralisĂ©e au QuĂ©bec et en Ontario oĂč le sirop est parfois consommĂ© au quotidien, se vendant Ă  un prix relativement peu Ă©levĂ©. Le sirop d’Ă©rable est aussi populaire dans des pays comme le Japon ou l’Allemagne en tant que produit exotique rare. Au Canada et aux États-Unis, le sirop peut ĂȘtre remplacĂ© par le « sirop de table », de prix moins Ă©levĂ©, contenant du sirop de maĂŻs et des arĂŽmes artificiels. Au QuĂ©bec, on appelle pĂ©jorativement « sirop de poteau » le sirop de maĂŻs ou tout autre type de sirop sucrĂ© considĂ©rĂ© comme Ă©tant infĂ©rieur au sirop d’érable.

Sommaire

1 Fabrication
1.1 RĂ©colte de l’eau d’Ă©rable
1.2 Évaporation
2 Classification
3 Certification biologique
4 Composition
5 Produits dérivés
6 Bénéfices sur la santé
7 Utilisations culinaires
8 Conseils
9 Notes et références
9.1 Notes
9.2 Références
10 Voir aussi
10.1 Articles connexes
10.2 Liens externes

Fabrication
Cabane à sucre dans son érabliÚre à Pont-Rouge au Québec.

Parmi les nombreuses espĂšces d’Ă©rables, trois sont principalement utilisĂ©es pour la production de sirop d’Ă©rable : l’Ă©rable noir (Acer nigrum) et l’Ă©rable Ă  sucre (Acer saccharum) mais aussi l’Ă©rable rouge (Acer rubrum) dans une moindre proportion2.

Le sirop d’Ă©rable est majoritairement produit au Canada — 78 % de la rĂ©colte mondiale3 — particuliĂšrement au QuĂ©bec (74 % de la production mondiale, plus de 90% de la production canadienne)4, avec une plus faible production en Ontario et au Nouveau-Brunswick. Il est aussi produit dans certains Ă©tats des États-Unis d’AmĂ©rique, notamment au Vermont, dans l’Ă©tat de New York, au Massachusetts, au New Hampshire, au Connecticut, au Maine, et en Pennsylvanie. Le climat caractĂ©ristique de ces rĂ©gions Ă  la fin de l’hiver est un facteur dĂ©terminant de la production de sirop d’érable.

La plus grosse Ă©rabliĂšre au monde, l’ÉrabliĂšre Nord-Ouest, se situe Ă  Saint-Quentin au Nouveau-Brunswick et compte au total 178 000 entailles5.
RĂ©colte de l’eau d’Ă©rable
Seaux pour la rĂ©colte traditionnelle de l’eau d’Ă©rable.
RĂ©colte aux États-Unis, oĂč la mĂ©thode est trĂšs semblable Ă  celle du QuĂ©bec.

Les acĂ©riculteurs collectent l’eau d’Ă©rable essentiellement Ă  la fin de l’hiver ou au dĂ©but du printemps, suivant les rĂ©gions, lorsque les nuits de gel sont suivies par des jours de dĂ©gel (tempĂ©rature diurne positive, journĂ©e idĂ©alement ensoleillĂ©e, et tempĂ©rature nocturne nĂ©gative) — on appelle cette pĂ©riode la « saison des sucres » ou le « temps des sucres » au QuĂ©bec6. Une entaille (dans la version traditionnelle) permet de rĂ©cupĂ©rer l’eau d’Ă©rable, liquide qui contient environ 2 % Ă  3 % de sucre. Ce sucre (essentiellement du saccharose)7 provient des racines de l’arbre. Au printemps, il monte sous l’écorce, Ă  travers le xylĂšme, dans la totalitĂ© de l’arbre afin de fournir l’Ă©nergie suffisante pour relancer son mĂ©tabolisme.

L’eau d’Ă©rable (ou sĂšve brute) est diffĂ©rente de la sĂšve Ă©laborĂ©e. Celle-ci, nettement plus chargĂ©e en minĂ©raux et molĂ©cules organiques complexes, ne remonte par les racines que lorsque le mĂ©tabolisme de l’arbre est relancĂ©. L’arrivĂ©e de la sĂšve et de son goĂ»t amer marque la fin de la rĂ©colte d’eau d’Ă©rable.

On ne rĂ©colte jamais l’eau d’un Ă©rable dont le tronc fait moins de 20 cm de diamĂštre. La rĂšgle gĂ©nĂ©rale est donc d’attendre jusqu’Ă  45 ans aprĂšs la plantation d’un Ă©rable avant de commencer Ă  rĂ©colter son eau. Cependant, un Ă©rable Ă  sucre peut vivre jusqu’Ă  300 ans, voire davantage. Il peut donc donner de l’eau Ă  chaque printemps pendant un grand nombre d’annĂ©es.
Évaporation
Exploitation traditionnelle et artisanale de l’eau de l’Ă©rable

C’est uniquement aprĂšs l’Ă©vaporation que l’eau devient plus consistante et donne naissance au sirop d’Ă©rable. Il faut entre 35 et 40 litres d’eau d’Ă©rable pour obtenir un litre de sirop.

Il est important d’atteindre le juste niveau d’évaporation car, si le sirop est trop dense, il cristallisera ; par contre, s’il est trop liquide, il risque de fermenter. La tempĂ©rature idĂ©ale Ă  donner au sirop d’Ă©rable est de 3,5 °C de plus que la tempĂ©rature d’Ă©bullition de l’eau, par exemple, Ă  101,3 kPa, l’eau bouillant Ă  100 °C, le sirop sera prĂȘt lorsqu’il atteindra 103,5 °C. Il faut adapter ces valeurs Ă  celle de la pression atmosphĂ©rique du lieu (altitude) et du moment. On peut aussi mesurer la densitĂ© du produit fini Ă  l’aide d’un hydromĂštre ou son indice de rĂ©fraction Ă  l’aide d’un rĂ©fractomĂštre. La densitĂ© doit correspondre Ă  66 degrĂ©s Brix au minimum. Dans la pratique industrielle, la technique de l’osmose inverse permet une premiĂšre Ă©tape de concentration pour une dĂ©pense Ă©nergĂ©tique moindre.

Le sirop d’Ă©rable est ensuite classĂ© par teinte : d’extra clair Ă  foncĂ©. Plus le sirop est clair, meilleure est la classe, mais moins le goĂ»t est prononcĂ©. Le sirop le plus fin est produit en mi-saison. Pendant longtemps, la prĂ©fĂ©rence est allĂ©e vers un sirop d’Ă©rable qui soit le plus clair possible. Jusqu’au XVIIIe siĂšcle, le sirop d’Ă©rable Ă©tait principalement consommĂ© directement par les producteurs ou par leurs proches. À l’Ă©poque, il Ă©tait pour ces personnes plus difficile et plus cher d’obtenir du sucre de canne que du sirop d’Ă©rable. On cherchait Ă  obtenir un sucre d’Ă©rable qui se rapproche le plus possible du sucre de canne. Aujourd’hui, certains reviennent Ă  des sirops plus colorĂ©s car ils ont un goĂ»t plus prononcĂ©.

Les diffĂ©rentes qualitĂ©s de sirop et d’eau d’Ă©rable influent sur le processus, gĂ©nĂ©ralement rĂ©alisĂ© Ă  la cabane Ă  sucre.
Classification
DiffĂ©rentes catĂ©gories de sirop d’Ă©rable.

Les acĂ©riculteurs classent le sirop d’Ă©rable en cinq catĂ©gories :

Extra clair : AA
Clair : A
Moyen : B
Ambré : C
Foncé : D

Certification biologique

Le sirop d’Ă©rable est un produit naturel sans aucun additif, cependant il peut ĂȘtre produit selon des normes plus strictes, les normes biologiques qui visent l’amĂ©nagement de l’érabliĂšre, la diversitĂ© vĂ©gĂ©tale, la fertilisation Ă©ventuelle, le contrĂŽle des ravageurs, l’entaillage, la collecte et la transformation de l’eau d’érable. Elles font l’objet d’un cahier des normes, respectĂ©es par les acĂ©riculteurs biologiques et contrĂŽlĂ©es de maniĂšre indĂ©pendante. Selon les sources, entre 12 %8 et 15 %9 du sirop d’érable produit au QuĂ©bec est certifiĂ© biologique.
Composition
Sirop d’Ă©rable
Valeur nutritionnelle moyenne
pour 100 g
Apport énergétique
Joules 1088 kJ
(Calories) (260 kcal)
Principaux composants
Glucides 67,04 g
– Amidon ? g
– Sucres 67,90 g
– Fibres alimentaires 0,0 g
Protéines 0,04 g
Lipides 0,06 g
– SaturĂ©s 0.007 mg
Eau 32,39 g
Minéraux & Oligo-éléments
Calcium 102 mg
Fer 0,11 mg
Magnésium 21 mg
Phosphore 2 mg
Potassium 212 mg
Sodium 12 mg
Zinc 1.47 mg
Vitamines
Provitamine A 0 mg
Vitamine A 0 mg
Vitamine B1 0.066 mg
Vitamine B2 1.270 mg
Vitamine B3 (ou PP) 0.081 mg
Vitamine B6 0.002 mg
Vitamine C 0 mg
Vitamine D 0 mg
Vitamine E 0 mg
Vitamine K 0 mg
Acides aminés
Acides gras
Source : USDA Nutrient Database (en)
modifier Consultez la documentation du modĂšle

Le sirop d’Ă©rable contient principalement des glucides, 68 % de sucrose (ou saccharose), 0,4 % de glucose et 0,3 % de fructose et de l’eau (31 %). Il est aussi riche en sels minĂ©raux tels que le potassium (1 300-3 900 ppm), le calcium (400-2 800 ppm), le magnĂ©sium (12-360 ppm), le manganĂšse (2-220) et le phosphore (79-183 ppm)10. Il contient aussi des acides organiques tels que l’acide malique (de 0,1 Ă  0,7 %), et en moindre quantitĂ© les acides citrique, succinique et fumarique (moins de 0,06 ppm)11. Le pH du sirop d’Ă©rable varie entre 5,6 et 7,911.

L’apport Ă©nergĂ©tique d’une cuillĂšre Ă  table (15 ml) de sirop d’Ă©rable est de 50 kilocalories2.
Produits dérivés
Étalage des produits Ă  base de sirop d’Ă©rable Ă  Ottawa

Plus on réduit par évaporation le sirop, plus on obtient un produit consistant.

La tire d’Ă©rable est constituĂ©e de sirop, chauffĂ© jusqu’Ă  avoir une consistance beaucoup plus ferme. Traditionnellement, on la dĂ©pose chaude sur de la neige, qui la fait refroidir, pour la dĂ©guster molle enroulĂ©e autour d’un bĂąton. Une fois refroidie, beaucoup plus dense, elle se vend aussi en pot et se mange Ă  la cuillĂšre.
Le beurre d’Ă©rable, sorte de fondant qui peut ĂȘtre utilisĂ© comme pĂąte Ă  tartiner. Le beurre d’Ă©rable ne contient pas de matiĂšre grasse, que du sucre.
Le sucre mou, moulé en pains, coulé en cornets ou en bonbons.
Le sucre dur (appelĂ© sucre d’Ă©rable), aussi moulĂ© en pains ou en bonbons.

Bénéfices sur la santé

Le sirop d’Ă©rable comporte des polyphĂ©nols et affiche une valeur ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) comparable Ă  celle de fruits et lĂ©gumes courants de notre alimentation, tel le brocolinote 1. Il faut noter que l’USDA ne considĂšre plus les valeurs ORAC comme ayant une valeur scientifique12. L’eau d’Ă©rable et le sirop d’Ă©rable contiennent Ă©galement d’importantes quantitĂ©s de terpĂšnes, et plus particuliĂšrement d’acide abscissique. Cet acide est reconnu, entre autres, pour stimuler le relĂąchement de l’insuline par les cellules pancrĂ©atiques et accroĂźtre la sensibilitĂ© des cellules adipeuses Ă  l’insuline, ce qui lui confĂšre des propriĂ©tĂ©s thĂ©rapeutiques pour le syndrome mĂ©tabolique et le diabĂšte13.

Le sirop d’Ă©rable du Canada renferme plus de 20 composĂ©s antioxydants selon des travaux du chercheur amĂ©ricain Navindra Seeram de l’UniversitĂ© de Rhode Island14.

Une Ă©tude menĂ©e par des chercheurs de l’UniversitĂ© McGill en 2015 a montrĂ© qu’un concentrĂ© de sirop d’Ă©rable rend les bactĂ©ries plus vulnĂ©rables aux antibiotiques. Selon les chercheurs, cette dĂ©couverte pourrait permettre d’attĂ©nuer les problĂšmes d’antibiorĂ©sistance et de rĂ©duire la quantitĂ© d’antibiotiques administrĂ©e Ă  un patient15.

Une Ă©quipe de chercheurs de l’UniversitĂ© Laval a dĂ©montrĂ© des propriĂ©tĂ©s anti-inflammatoires d’une molĂ©cule prĂ©sente dans le sirop d’Ă©rable, le quĂ©bĂ©col16. Cette molĂ©cule, ainsi que d’autres molĂ©cules dĂ©rivĂ©es, pourrait permettre un nouveau traitement pour l’arthrite ainsi que d’autres maladies inflammatoires. Les chercheurs ont Ă©tĂ© capables de synthĂ©tiser le quĂ©bĂ©col en laboratoire, ainsi que ses molĂ©cules dĂ©rivĂ©es.
Utilisations culinaires
Les gaufres accompagnĂ©es de sirop d’Ă©rable

La principale utilisation du sirop d’érable consiste Ă  en verser sur des crĂȘpes, des gaufres, du pain perdu ou des pancakes.
Il peut ĂȘtre utilisĂ© Ă  la place des fruits dans le yogourt nature pour en rehausser le goĂ»t. Il est aussi souvent ajoutĂ© aux cĂ©rĂ©ales pour la mĂȘme raison.
On le mĂ©lange Ă  la crĂšme glacĂ©e, au parfum de vanille ou nature, sous forme de sirop ou encore de brisures de pain de sucre d’érable, sa forme cristallisĂ©e, pour une texture plus croustillante.
Des vins apĂ©ritifs, mousseux ou plats sont fabriquĂ©s par fermentation du sirop d’érable pur ou macĂ©rĂ© avec d’autres herbes, plantes ou jus de fruits. Une distillation subsĂ©quente permet d’obtenir des liqueurs apĂ©ritives ou digestives, Ă  des degrĂ©s divers de concentration Ă©thylique. Des cuisines plus tendance, des pĂątisseries Ă©galement, usent judicieusement des divers alcools d’érable en finition ou en composition d’un mets, pour cuire, dĂ©glacer, flamber.
On l’utilise dans plusieurs recettes, dont celle des « fĂšves au lard » qui consiste Ă  les faire longuement cuire au four Ă  feu doux dans la graisse de porc avec bouquet garni et Ă  les servir toujours chaudes nappĂ©es de sirop dans un mĂ©lange sucrĂ©-salĂ©. Ce plat quĂ©bĂ©cois a traditionnellement utilisĂ© la gourgane pour sa taille et sa richesse nutritive, mais toute autre fĂšve cultivĂ©e localement remplissait bien cet office.
On badigeonne de sirop d’érable certaines viandes, dont le porc, le jambon ou les cĂŽtes levĂ©es avant de les cuire. Sa saveur particuliĂšre, son goĂ»t sucrĂ© et ses arĂŽmes naturels pĂ©nĂštrent la viande et il caramĂ©lise la surface des morceaux de viande rĂŽtis Ă  laquelle il donne un glaçage brillant.

Conseils

Des cristaux de saccharose peuvent prĂ©cipiter dans le sirop. Ce phĂ©nomĂšne s’explique par un dĂ©sĂ©quilibre entre la quantitĂ© de sucre et d’eau contenue dans le sirop. Pour remĂ©dier Ă  la situation, une solution consiste Ă  chauffer le sirop au bain-marie jusqu’Ă  ce que les cristaux soient dissous.
Lorsqu’on profite de la saison des sucres pour faire provision de sirop d’Ă©rable, il peut ĂȘtre conservĂ© au rĂ©frigĂ©rateur ou au congĂ©lateur jusqu’au prochain printemps. Une fois la boĂźte de conserve ouverte, le contenu peut ĂȘtre transfĂ©rĂ© dans un rĂ©cipient muni d’un couvercle hermĂ©tique.
L’apparition de pellicules blanchĂątres (moisissures) Ă  la surface peut ĂȘtre supprimĂ©e en passant le sirop Ă  travers un coton Ă  fromage et en l’amenant Ă  Ă©bullition ; une utilisation rapide est ensuite nĂ©cessaire.
Lors de l’Ă©bullition de l’eau d’Ă©rable, si celle-ci s’emporte comme le fait parfois le sucre chauffĂ©, il suffit d’y ajouter une faible quantitĂ© de corps gras, tel de la crĂšme ou du beurre.

Maple syrup
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Maple syrup Maple syrup.jpg
Bottled maple syrup (unlabeled)
Place of origin Canada
United States
Main ingredients Xylem sap (usually from sugar maple, red maple, or black maple)
Cookbook: Maple syrup Media: Maple syrup

Maple syrup is a syrup usually made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species. In cold climates, these trees store starch in their trunks and roots before the winter; the starch is then converted to sugar that rises in the sap in late winter and early spring. Maple trees can be tapped by drilling holes into their trunks and collecting the exuded sap, which is processed by heating to evaporate much of the water, leaving the concentrated syrup.

Maple syrup was first collected and used by the indigenous peoples, and the practice was adopted by European settlers, who gradually refined production methods. Technological improvements in the 1970s further refined syrup processing. The Canadian province of Quebec is by far the largest producer, responsible for about three-quarters of the world’s output; Canadian exports of maple syrup exceed C$145 million (approximately US$130.5 million) per year. Vermont is the largest producer in the United States, generating about 5.5 percent of the global supply.

Maple syrup is graded according to the Canada, United States, or Vermont scales based on its density and translucency. Sucrose is the most prevalent sugar in maple syrup. In Canada, syrups must be made exclusively from maple sap to qualify as maple syrup and must also be at least 66 percent sugar.[1] In the United States, a syrup must be made almost entirely from maple sap to be labelled as "maple", though states such as Vermont and New York have more restrictive definitions (see below).

Maple syrup is often eaten with pancakes, waffles, French toast, or oatmeal and porridge. It is also used as an ingredient in baking, and as a sweetener or flavouring agent. Culinary experts have praised its unique flavour, although the chemistry responsible is not fully understood.[2]

Contents

1 Sources
2 History
2.1 Indigenous peoples
2.2 Europeans
2.3 Since 1850
3 Processing
3.1 Off-flavours
4 Production
5 Commerce
6 Grades
6.1 Old grading system
7 Food and nutrition
8 Imitations and substitutions
9 Cultural significance
10 See also
11 References
11.1 Notes
11.2 Cited works
12 Further reading
13 External links

Sources
A sugar maple tree

Three species of maple trees are predominantly used to produce maple syrup: the sugar maple (Acer saccharum), the black maple (A. nigrum), and the red maple (A. rubrum),[3] because of the high sugar content (roughly two to five percent) in the sap of these species.[4] The black maple is included as a subspecies or variety in a more broadly viewed concept of A. saccharum, the sugar maple, by some botanists.[5] Of these, the red maple has a shorter season because it buds earlier than sugar and black maples, which alters the flavour of the sap.[6]

A few other (but not all) species of maple (Acer) are also sometimes used as sources of sap for producing maple syrup, including the box elder or Manitoba maple (Acer negundo),[7] the silver maple (A. saccharinum),[8] and the bigleaf maple (A. macrophyllum).[9] Similar syrups may also be produced from birch or palm trees, among other sources.[10][11]
History
Indigenous peoples
"Sugar-Making Among the Indians in the North" (19th-century illustration)

Indigenous peoples living in northeastern North America were the first groups known to have produced maple syrup and maple sugar. According to aboriginal oral traditions, as well as archaeological evidence, maple tree sap was being processed into syrup long before Europeans arrived in the region.[12][13] There are no authenticated accounts of how maple syrup production and consumption began,[14] but various legends exist; one of the most popular involves maple sap being used in place of water to cook venison served to a chief.[13] Other stories credit the development of maple syrup production to Nanabozho, Glooskap, or the squirrel. Aboriginal tribes developed rituals around sugar-making, celebrating the Sugar Moon (the first full moon of spring) with a Maple Dance.[15] Many aboriginal dishes replaced the salt traditional in European cuisine with maple sugar or syrup.[13]

The Algonquians recognized maple sap as a source of energy and nutrition. At the beginning of the spring thaw, they used stone tools to make V-shaped incisions in tree trunks; they then inserted reeds or concave pieces of bark to run the sap into buckets, which were often made from birch bark.[14] The maple sap was concentrated either by dropping hot cooking stones into the buckets[16] or by leaving them exposed to the cold temperatures overnight and disposing of the layer of ice that formed on top. While there was widespread agriculture in Mesoamerica and the Southeast and Southwest regions of the United States, the production of maple syrup is one of only a few agricultural processes in the Northeast that is not a European colonial import.[14]
Europeans

In the early stages of European colonization in northeastern North America, local Indigenous peoples showed the arriving colonists how to tap the trunks of certain types of maples during the spring thaw to harvest the sap.[17] André Thevet, the "Royal Cosmographer of France", wrote about Jacques Cartier drinking maple sap during his Canadian voyages.[18] By 1680, European settlers and fur traders were involved in harvesting maple products.[19] However, rather than making incisions in the bark, the Europeans used the method of drilling tapholes in the trunks with augers. During the 17th and 18th centuries, processed maple sap was used primarily as a source of concentrated sugar, in both liquid and crystallized-solid form, as cane sugar had to be imported from the West Indies.[14][15]

Maple sugaring parties typically began to operate at the start of the spring thaw in regions of woodland with sufficiently large numbers of maples.[17] Syrup makers first bored holes in the trunks, usually more than one hole per large tree; they then inserted wooden spouts into the holes and hung a wooden bucket from the protruding end of each spout to collect the sap. The buckets were commonly made by cutting cylindrical segments from a large tree trunk and then hollowing out each segment’s core from one end of the cylinder, creating a seamless, watertight container.[14] Sap filled the buckets, and was then either transferred to larger holding vessels (barrels, large pots, or hollowed-out wooden logs), often mounted on sledges or wagons pulled by draft animals, or carried in buckets or other convenient containers.[20] The sap-collection buckets were returned to the spouts mounted on the trees, and the process was repeated for as long as the flow of sap remained "sweet". The specific weather conditions of the thaw period were, and still are, critical in determining the length of the sugaring season.[21] As the weather continues to warm, a maple tree’s normal early spring biological process eventually alters the taste of the sap, making it unpalatable, perhaps due to an increase in amino acids.[8]

The boiling process was very time-consuming. The harvested sap was transported back to the party’s base camp, where it was then poured into large vessels (usually made from metal) and boiled to achieve the desired consistency.[14] The sap was usually transported using large barrels pulled by horses or oxen to a central collection point, where it was processed either over a fire built out in the open or inside a shelter built for that purpose (the "sugar shack").[14][22]
Since 1850
A bucket used to collect sap, built circa 1820

Around the time of the American Civil War, syrup makers started using large, flat sheet metal pans as they were more efficient for boiling than heavy, rounded iron kettles, because of a greater surface area for evaporation.[22] Around this time, cane sugar replaced maple sugar as the dominant sweetener in the US; as a result, producers focused marketing efforts on maple syrup. The first evaporator, used to heat and concentrate sap, was patented in 1858. In 1872, an evaporator was developed that featured two pans and a metal arch or firebox, which greatly decreased boiling time.[14] Around 1900, producers bent the tin that formed the bottom of a pan into a series of flues, which increased the heated surface area of the pan and again decreased boiling time. Some producers also added a finishing pan, a separate batch evaporator, as a final stage in the evaporation process.[22]

Buckets began to be replaced with plastic bags, which allowed people to see at a distance how much sap had been collected. Syrup producers also began using tractors to haul vats of sap from the trees being tapped (the sugarbush) to the evaporator. Some producers adopted motor-powered tappers and metal tubing systems to convey sap from the tree to a central collection container, but these techniques were not widely used.[14] Heating methods also diversified: modern producers use wood, oil, natural gas, propane, or steam to evaporate sap.[22] Modern filtration methods were perfected to prevent contamination of the syrup.[23]
Two taps in a maple tree, using plastic tubing for sap collection

A large number of technological changes took place during the 1970s. Plastic tubing systems that had been experimental since the early part of the century were perfected, and the sap came directly from the tree to the evaporator house.[24] Vacuum pumps were added to the tubing systems, and preheaters were developed to recycle heat lost in the steam. Producers developed reverse-osmosis machines to take a portion of water out of the sap before it was boiled, increasing processing efficiency.[14]

Improvements in tubing and vacuum pumps, new filtering techniques, "supercharged" preheaters, and better storage containers have since been developed. Research continues on pest control and improved woodlot management.[14] In 2009, researchers at the University of Vermont unveiled a new type of tap that prevents backflow of sap into the tree, reducing bacterial contamination and preventing the tree from attempting to heal the bore hole.[25] Experiments show that it may be possible to use saplings in a plantation instead of mature trees dramatically boosting productivity per acre.[26]
Processing
A traditional bucket tap and a plastic-bag tap

Production methods have been streamlined since colonial days, yet remain basically unchanged. Sap must first be collected and boiled down to obtain pure syrup without chemical agents or preservatives. Maple syrup is made by boiling between 20 and 50 volumes of sap (depending on its concentration) over an open fire until 1 volume of syrup is obtained, usually at a temperature 4.1 °C (7.4 °F) over the boiling point of water. As the boiling point of water varies with changes in air pressure the correct value for pure water is determined at the place where the syrup is being produced, each time evaporation is begun and periodically throughout the day.[22][27] Syrup can be boiled entirely over one heat source or can be drawn off into smaller batches and boiled at a more controlled temperature.[28]

Boiling the syrup is a tightly controlled process, which ensures appropriate sugar content. Syrup boiled too long will eventually crystallize, whereas under-boiled syrup will be watery, and will quickly spoil. The finished syrup has a density of 66° on the Brix scale (a hydrometric scale used to measure sugar solutions).[29] The syrup is then filtered to remove sugar sand, crystals made up largely of sugar and calcium malate.[30] These crystals are not toxic, but create a "gritty" texture in the syrup if not filtered out.[31] The filtered syrup is graded and packaged while still hot, usually at a temperature of 82 °C (180 °F) or greater. The containers are turned over after being sealed to sterilize the cap with the hot syrup. Packages can be made of metal, glass, or coated plastic, depending on volume and target market.[32] The syrup can also be heated longer and further processed to create a variety of other maple products, including maple sugar, maple butter or cream, and maple candy or taffy.[33]
File:MapleSyrupDrop.ogvPlay media
Maple Syrup harvesting
Off-flavours

Off-flavours can sometimes develop during the production of maple syrup; causes include contaminants in the boiling apparatus, such as paint or cleanser; changes in the sap, such as fermentation when it has been left sitting too long; and changes in the tree, such as "buddy sap" late in the season when budding has begun.[34] In some circumstances it is possible to remove off-flavours through processing.[35]
Production
A "sugar shack" where sap is boiling.
Maple syrup in Quebec is typically sold in cans with this distinctive design
Maple sap being transformed to syrup

Maple syrup production is centred in northeastern North America; however, given the correct weather conditions, it can be made wherever suitable species of maple trees grow.

A maple syrup production farm is called a "sugarbush" or "sugarwood". Sap is often boiled in a "sugar house" (also known as a "sugar shack," "sugar shanty," or cabane Ă  sucre), a building louvered at the top to vent the steam from the boiling sap.[36]

Maples are usually tapped beginning at 30 to 40 years of age. Each tree can support between one and three taps, depending on its trunk diameter. The average maple tree will produce 35 to 50 litres (9.2 to 13.2 US gal) of sap per season, up to 12 litres (3.2 US gal) per day.[37] This is roughly equal to 7% of its total sap. Seasons last for four to eight weeks, depending on the weather.[38] During the day, starch stored in the roots for the winter rises through the trunk as sugary sap, allowing it to be tapped.[21] Sap is not tapped at night because the temperature drop inhibits sap flow, although taps are typically left in place overnight.[39] Some producers also tap in autumn, though this practice is less common than spring tapping. Maples can continue to be tapped for sap until they are over 100 years old.[37]
Commerce

Until the 1930s, the United States produced most of the world’s maple syrup.[40] Today, after rapid growth in the 1990s, Canada produces more than 80 percent of the world’s maple syrup, producing about 26,500,000 litres (7,000,000 US gal) in 2004. The vast majority of this comes from the province of Quebec, which is the world’s largest producer, with about 75 percent of global production totalling 24,660,000 litres (6,510,000 US gal) in 2005.[41] As of 2003, Quebec had more than 7,000 producers, collectively making over 24,000,000 litres (6,300,000 US gal) of syrup.[42] Production in Quebec is controlled through a supply management system, with producers receiving quota allotments from the Federation of Quebec Maple Syrup Producers (FĂ©dĂ©ration des producteurs acĂ©ricoles du QuĂ©bec), which also maintains reserves of syrup.[43] Canada exports more than 9,400,000 litres (2,500,000 US gal) of maple syrup per year, valued at more than C$145 million.[24][44] The provinces of Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island produce smaller amounts of syrup.[41]

The Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan produce maple syrup using the sap of the box elder or Manitoba maple (Acer negundo).[7] A Manitoba maple tree’s yield is usually less than half that of a similar sugar maple tree.[45] Manitoba maple syrup has a slightly different flavour from sugar-maple syrup, because it contains less sugar and the tree’s sap flows more slowly.

Vermont is the biggest US producer, with over 1,320,000 US gallons (5,000,000 L) during the 2013 season, followed by New York with 574,000 US gallons (2,170,000 L) and Maine with 450,000 US gallons (1,700,000 L). Wisconsin, Ohio, New Hampshire, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Connecticut all produced marketable quantities of maple syrup of less than 265,000 US gallons (1,000,000 L) each in 2013.[46] As of 2003, Vermont produced about 5.5 percent of the global syrup supply.[42]

Maple syrup has been produced on a small scale in some other countries, notably Japan and South Korea.[47] However, in South Korea in particular, it is traditional to consume maple sap, called gorosoe, instead of processing it into syrup.[48]

In 2013, 65% of Canadian maple syrup exports went to the United States (a value of C$178 million), 9% to Japan (C$25 million), 8% to Germany (C$22 million) and 4.3% to the United Kingdom (C$12 million).[49]
Grades
See also: Food grading

Following an effort from the International Maple Syrup Institute (IMSI) and many maple syrup producer associations, both Canada and the United States have altered their laws regarding the classification of maple syrup to be uniform. Whereas in the past each state or province had their own laws on the classification of maple syrup, now those laws state the same grades throughout. This had been a work in progress for several years, and most of the finalization of the new grading system was made in 2014. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency announced in the Canada Gazette on 28 June 2014 that rules for the sale of maple syrup would be amended to include new descriptors, at the request of the IMSI.[50]

As of December 31, 2014, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)[51] and as of March 2, 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)[52] issued revised standards on the classification of maple syrup as follows:

Grade A
Golden Colour and Delicate Taste
Amber Colour and Rich Taste
Dark Colour and Robust Taste
Very Dark Colour and Strong Taste
Processing Grade
Substandard

As long as maple syrup does not have an off-flavor and is of a uniform color and clean and free from cloudiness, turbidity, sediment, it can be identified as one of the A grades above. If it does exhibit any of the problems mentioned earlier, it does not meet Grade A requirements and must be labeled as Processing Grade maple syrup and may not be sold to the consumer. If maple syrup does not meet the requirements of Processing Grade maple syrup (including a fairly characteristic maple taste), it is classified as Substandard.[52]

As of February 2015, this new grading system has been accepted and made law by most maple-producing states and provinces, other than Ontario, Quebec, and Ohio. Vermont, in an effort to "jump-start" the new grading regulations, adopted the new grading system as of January 1, 2014, after the grade changes passed the Senate and House in 2013. Maine passed a bill to take effect as soon as both Canada and the United States adopted the new grades. They are allowing a one-year grace period. In New York, the new grade changes became law on January 1, 2015, with a one-year grace period. New Hampshire did not require legislative approval and so the new grade laws became effective as of December 16, 2014, and were required to be complied with as of January 1, 2016 at the latest.[53]

Golden and Amber grades typically have a milder flavour than Dark and Very dark, which are both dark and have an intense maple flavour.[54] The darker grades of syrup are used primarily for cooking and baking, although some specialty dark syrups are produced for table use.[55] Syrup harvested earlier in the season tends to yield a lighter color.[56] With the new grading system, the classification of maple syrup depends ultimately on its translucence. Golden has to be more than 75 percent translucent, Amber has to be 50.0 to 74.9 percent translucent, Dark has to be 25.0 to 49.9 percent translucent, and Very Dark is any product less than 25.0 percent translucent.[52]
Old grading system
Old US maple syrup grades, left to right: Grade A Light Amber ("Fancy"), Grade A Medium Amber, Grade A Dark Amber, Grade B

In Canada, maple syrup was classified prior to December 31, 2014, by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) as one of three grades, each with several colour classes: Canada No. 1, including Extra Light, Light, and Medium; No. 2 Amber; and finally No. 3 Dark or any other ungraded category. Producers in Ontario or QuĂ©bec may have followed either federal or provincial grading guidelines. QuĂ©bec’s and Ontario’s guidelines differed slightly from the federal: there were two "number" categories in QuĂ©bec (Number 1, with four colour classes, and 2, with five colour classes).[57] As in QuĂ©bec, Ontario’s producers had two "number" grades: 1, with three colour classes; and 2, with one colour class, which was typically referred to as "Ontario Amber" when produced and sold in that province only.[58] A typical year’s yield for a maple syrup producer will be about 25 to 30 percent of each of the #1 colours, 10 percent #2 Amber, and 2 percent #3 Dark.[29]

The United States used (some states still do, as they await state regulation) different grading standards. Maple syrup was divided into two major grades: Grade A and Grade B. Grade A was further divided into three subgrades: Light Amber (sometimes known as Fancy), Medium Amber, and Dark Amber. The Vermont Agency of Agriculture Food and Markets used a similar grading system of colour, and is roughly equivalent, especially for lighter syrups, but using letters: "AA", "A", etc.[59][60] The Vermont grading system differed from the US system in maintaining a slightly higher standard of product density (measured on the Baumé scale). New Hampshire maintained a similar standard, but not a separate state grading scale. The Vermont-graded product had 0.9 percent more sugar and less water in its composition than US-graded. One grade of syrup not for table use, called commercial or Grade C, was also produced under the Vermont system.[54]
Food and nutrition
Maple syrup Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,093 kJ (261 kcal)
Carbohydrates

67.09 g
Sugars 59.53 g
Dietary fiber 0 g
Fat

0.20 g
Protein

0 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(1%)
0.006 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(1%)
0.01 mg
Niacin (B3)
(0%)
0.03 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)

(1%)
0.036 mg
Vitamin B6
(0%)
0.002 mg
Minerals
Calcium
(7%)
67 mg
Iron
(9%)
1.20 mg
Magnesium
(4%)
14 mg
Manganese
(157%)
3.298 mg
Phosphorus
(0%)
2 mg
Potassium
(4%)
204 mg
Zinc
(44%)
4.16 mg

Units
ÎŒg = micrograms ‱ mg = milligrams
IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

The basic ingredient in maple syrup is the sap from the xylem of sugar maple or various other species of maple trees. It consists primarily of sucrose and water, with small amounts of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose from the invert sugar created in the boiling process.[61] Accordingly, sugars comprise 90% of total carbohydrates which contribute nearly all of the 261 calories per 100 g serving (right table).

Maple syrup generally is devoid of micronutrient content (right table), excepting appreciable amounts of zinc and manganese which contribute 44% and 157% of the Daily Value, respectively, per 100 g of syrup consumed (right table).[62]

Maple syrup also contains trace amounts of amino acids which increase in content as sap flow occurs.[63] Additionally, maple syrup contains a wide variety of volatile organic compounds, including vanillin, hydroxybutanone, and propionaldehyde. It is not yet known exactly what compounds are responsible for maple syrup’s distinctive flavour,[30] however its primary flavour contributing compounds are maple furanone, strawberry furanone, and maltol.[64]

New compounds have been identified in maple syrup, one of which is quebecol, a natural phenolic compound created when the maple sap is boiled to create syrup.[65]

One author described maple syrup as "a unique ingredient, smooth- and silky-textured, with a sweet, distinctive flavour – hints of caramel with overtones of toffee will not do – and a rare colour, amber set alight. Maple flavour is, well, maple flavour, uniquely different from any other."[39] Agriculture Canada has developed a "flavour wheel" that details 91 unique flavours that can be present in maple syrup. These flavours are divided into 13 families: vanilla, empyreumatic (burnt), milky, fruity, floral, spicy, foreign deterioration or environment, maple, confectionery, plants forest-humus-cereals, herbaceous, or ligneous.[66] These flavours are evaluated using a procedure similar to wine tasting.[67] Other culinary experts praise its unique flavour.[68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75]

Maple syrup and its various artificial imitations are widely used as toppings for pancakes, waffles, and French toast in North America. They can also be used to flavour a variety of foods, including fritters, ice cream, hot cereal, fresh fruit, and sausages. It is also used as sweetener for granola, applesauce, baked beans, candied sweet potatoes, winter squash, cakes, pies, breads, tea, coffee, and hot toddies. Maple syrup can also be used as a replacement for honey in wine (mead).[76]
Imitations and substitutions

In the United States, "maple syrup" must be made almost entirely from maple sap, although small amounts of substances such as salt may be added.[77] "Maple-flavoured" syrups include maple syrup but may contain additional ingredients.[78] "Pancake syrup", "waffle syrup", "table syrup", and similarly named syrups are substitutes which are less expensive than maple syrup. In these syrups, the primary ingredient is most often high fructose corn syrup flavoured with sotolon; they have no genuine maple content, and are usually thickened far beyond the viscosity of maple syrup.[79] The fenugreek seed, a spice with high amounts of sotolon, can be prepared to have a maple-like flavour, and is used to make a very strong commercial flavouring that is similar to maple syrup, but much less expensive; one such syrup, Mapleine, was popular during the Great Depression.[80][81] American labelling laws prohibit imitation syrups from having "maple" in their names.[82]

In Canada, maple syrup must be made entirely from maple sap, and syrup must have a density of 66° on the Brix scale to be marketed as maple syrup.[29] Québécois sometimes refer to imitation maple syrup as sirop de poteau ("pole syrup"), a joke referring to the syrup as having been made by tapping telephone poles.[83]

Imitation syrups are generally cheaper than maple syrup, but tend to taste artificial. A 2009 Cook’s Illustrated comparison between top-selling maple and imitation syrups consistently rated the real maple brands (Maple Grove Farms, Highland Sugarworks, Camp Maple, Spring Tree, and Maple Gold) above the imitation brands tested (Eggo, Aunt Jemima, Mrs. Butterworth’s, Log Cabin, and Hungry Jack).[84] In the United States, consumers generally prefer imitation syrups, likely because of the significantly lower cost.[85]
Cultural significance
The motif on the flag of Canada is a maple leaf.

Maple syrup and maple sugar were used during the American Civil War and by abolitionists in the years prior to the war because most cane sugar and molasses were produced by Southern slaves.[86][87] Because of food rationing during the Second World War, people in the northeastern United States were encouraged to stretch their sugar rations by sweetening foods with maple syrup and maple sugar,[14] and recipe books were printed to help housewives employ this alternative source.[88]

Maple products are considered emblematic of Canada, in particular Quebec, and are frequently sold in tourist shops and airports as souvenirs from Canada. The sugar maple’s leaf has come to symbolize Canada, and is depicted on the country’s flag.[89] Several US states, including New York, Vermont and Wisconsin, have the sugar maple as their state tree.[90] A scene of sap collection is depicted on the Vermont state quarter, issued in 2001

Posted by Rubiconrouge on 2016-04-04 23:04:28

Tagged: , ppff5f , une société Yahoo

HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH’s Ship’s Company were visited by renowned Scottish chef, Tony Singh MBE, who cooked up a storm to mark the annual baking bonanza of Shrove Tuesday.

HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH’s Ship’s Company were visited by renowned Scottish chef, Tony Singh MBE, who cooked up a storm to mark the annual baking bonanza of Shrove Tuesday.

HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH’s Ship’s Company were visited by renowned Scottish chef, Tony Singh MBE, who cooked up a storm to mark the annual baking bonanza of Shrove Tuesday.

Traditionally Shrove Tuesday, or Pancake Day, is the last day of feasting before the religious festival of Lent begins, and for the hungry sailors onboard this ship the feast of pancakes was a welcome treat! With state of the art equipment, the Royal Navy chefs who will sail with the ship have been eagerly getting to grips with the newest galley in the fleet by cooking up three meals per day for her 680 crew members.

To mark the festival, six of the most junior chefs onboard were asked to create their own pancake recipes and go head-to-head for the title of star pancake-maker. To add some extra spice to the competition the young chefs were lucky enough to be visited by Scottish favourite Tony Singh MBE to cast the deciding vote on the best tasting recipe and provide some handy tips.
Speaking before the cooking began, Tony said, “It’s a privilege to be here in this state of the art-galley while you embark on your careers as the future chefs of this amazing warship. Serving on board the UKs biggest and most complex warship is an incredible way to start your career in the kitchen and the best advice I can give you talented chefs is to remember that less is more!”

AB Chef Nicholas Cassidy said, “Having the opportunity to show off our culinary skills and our brand new galley to a TV celebrity chef has been exciting. The pressure is really on when we’re cooking up the meals for the ship’s company but it was nothing compared to making sure my pancakes were just right for a top chef.”

Posted by QEClassCarriers on 2017-02-28 08:27:03

Tagged: , Tony Singh , Pancake Competition , Queen Elizabeth , Hogan , Rosyth , News Event , Surface Ship , Aircraft Carrier , UK , Faslane , ARGYLL

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Sirop d’Ă©rable
Sirop d’érable du QuĂ©bec
Fabrication du sirop d’Ă©rable par les AmĂ©rindiens en Nouvelle-France (XVIIIe siĂšcle) par Joseph-François Lafitau.

Le sirop d’Ă©rable est produit Ă  partir de l’eau d’Ă©rable recueillie au dĂ©but du printemps et qui est ensuite concentrĂ©e par Ă©bullition. L’eau d’Ă©rable est distincte de la sĂšve d’Ă©rable qui arrive en fin de printemps et qui produit un sirop d’un goĂ»t amer dont personne ne veut. L’Ă©bullition de l’eau d’Ă©rable contenant de la sĂšve d’Ă©rable produit un sirop beaucoup plus foncĂ© qui conduit rapidement Ă  l’oxydation permanente des bassins d’Ă©bullition qui doivent Ă  ce moment ĂȘtre remplacĂ©s et c’est pour cette raison que la montĂ© de la sĂšve dans l’eau d’Ă©rable est le signe de la fin de la saison des sucres. La rĂ©colte de l’eau d’Ă©rable est aussi nommĂ©e l’acĂ©riculture. Le sirop d’Ă©rable est produit dans les forĂȘts du nord-est de l’AmĂ©rique du Nord (surtout au QuĂ©bec, mais aussi en Ontario, dans les provinces maritimes du Canada et en Nouvelle-Angleterre), et se vend aujourd’hui partout dans le monde, en particulier au Japon (principal importateur).

La mĂ©thode de production du sirop d’Ă©rable Ă©tait dĂ©jĂ  connue et maĂźtrisĂ©e par les populations autochtones du Canada lors de l’arrivĂ©e des EuropĂ©ens. On s’en servait en particulier comme aliment tonique, au printemps. De nombreuses lĂ©gendes amĂ©rindiennes mettent en scĂšne le sirop d’Ă©rable1.

Aujourd’hui, la consommation de sirop d’Ă©rable est gĂ©nĂ©ralisĂ©e au QuĂ©bec et en Ontario oĂč le sirop est parfois consommĂ© au quotidien, se vendant Ă  un prix relativement peu Ă©levĂ©. Le sirop d’Ă©rable est aussi populaire dans des pays comme le Japon ou l’Allemagne en tant que produit exotique rare. Au Canada et aux États-Unis, le sirop peut ĂȘtre remplacĂ© par le « sirop de table », de prix moins Ă©levĂ©, contenant du sirop de maĂŻs et des arĂŽmes artificiels. Au QuĂ©bec, on appelle pĂ©jorativement « sirop de poteau » le sirop de maĂŻs ou tout autre type de sirop sucrĂ© considĂ©rĂ© comme Ă©tant infĂ©rieur au sirop d’érable.

Sommaire

1 Fabrication
1.1 RĂ©colte de l’eau d’Ă©rable
1.2 Évaporation
2 Classification
3 Certification biologique
4 Composition
5 Produits dérivés
6 Bénéfices sur la santé
7 Utilisations culinaires
8 Conseils
9 Notes et références
9.1 Notes
9.2 Références
10 Voir aussi
10.1 Articles connexes
10.2 Liens externes

Fabrication
Cabane à sucre dans son érabliÚre à Pont-Rouge au Québec.

Parmi les nombreuses espĂšces d’Ă©rables, trois sont principalement utilisĂ©es pour la production de sirop d’Ă©rable : l’Ă©rable noir (Acer nigrum) et l’Ă©rable Ă  sucre (Acer saccharum) mais aussi l’Ă©rable rouge (Acer rubrum) dans une moindre proportion2.

Le sirop d’Ă©rable est majoritairement produit au Canada — 78 % de la rĂ©colte mondiale3 — particuliĂšrement au QuĂ©bec (74 % de la production mondiale, plus de 90% de la production canadienne)4, avec une plus faible production en Ontario et au Nouveau-Brunswick. Il est aussi produit dans certains Ă©tats des États-Unis d’AmĂ©rique, notamment au Vermont, dans l’Ă©tat de New York, au Massachusetts, au New Hampshire, au Connecticut, au Maine, et en Pennsylvanie. Le climat caractĂ©ristique de ces rĂ©gions Ă  la fin de l’hiver est un facteur dĂ©terminant de la production de sirop d’érable.

La plus grosse Ă©rabliĂšre au monde, l’ÉrabliĂšre Nord-Ouest, se situe Ă  Saint-Quentin au Nouveau-Brunswick et compte au total 178 000 entailles5.
RĂ©colte de l’eau d’Ă©rable
Seaux pour la rĂ©colte traditionnelle de l’eau d’Ă©rable.
RĂ©colte aux États-Unis, oĂč la mĂ©thode est trĂšs semblable Ă  celle du QuĂ©bec.

Les acĂ©riculteurs collectent l’eau d’Ă©rable essentiellement Ă  la fin de l’hiver ou au dĂ©but du printemps, suivant les rĂ©gions, lorsque les nuits de gel sont suivies par des jours de dĂ©gel (tempĂ©rature diurne positive, journĂ©e idĂ©alement ensoleillĂ©e, et tempĂ©rature nocturne nĂ©gative) — on appelle cette pĂ©riode la « saison des sucres » ou le « temps des sucres » au QuĂ©bec6. Une entaille (dans la version traditionnelle) permet de rĂ©cupĂ©rer l’eau d’Ă©rable, liquide qui contient environ 2 % Ă  3 % de sucre. Ce sucre (essentiellement du saccharose)7 provient des racines de l’arbre. Au printemps, il monte sous l’écorce, Ă  travers le xylĂšme, dans la totalitĂ© de l’arbre afin de fournir l’Ă©nergie suffisante pour relancer son mĂ©tabolisme.

L’eau d’Ă©rable (ou sĂšve brute) est diffĂ©rente de la sĂšve Ă©laborĂ©e. Celle-ci, nettement plus chargĂ©e en minĂ©raux et molĂ©cules organiques complexes, ne remonte par les racines que lorsque le mĂ©tabolisme de l’arbre est relancĂ©. L’arrivĂ©e de la sĂšve et de son goĂ»t amer marque la fin de la rĂ©colte d’eau d’Ă©rable.

On ne rĂ©colte jamais l’eau d’un Ă©rable dont le tronc fait moins de 20 cm de diamĂštre. La rĂšgle gĂ©nĂ©rale est donc d’attendre jusqu’Ă  45 ans aprĂšs la plantation d’un Ă©rable avant de commencer Ă  rĂ©colter son eau. Cependant, un Ă©rable Ă  sucre peut vivre jusqu’Ă  300 ans, voire davantage. Il peut donc donner de l’eau Ă  chaque printemps pendant un grand nombre d’annĂ©es.
Évaporation
Exploitation traditionnelle et artisanale de l’eau de l’Ă©rable

C’est uniquement aprĂšs l’Ă©vaporation que l’eau devient plus consistante et donne naissance au sirop d’Ă©rable. Il faut entre 35 et 40 litres d’eau d’Ă©rable pour obtenir un litre de sirop.

Il est important d’atteindre le juste niveau d’évaporation car, si le sirop est trop dense, il cristallisera ; par contre, s’il est trop liquide, il risque de fermenter. La tempĂ©rature idĂ©ale Ă  donner au sirop d’Ă©rable est de 3,5 °C de plus que la tempĂ©rature d’Ă©bullition de l’eau, par exemple, Ă  101,3 kPa, l’eau bouillant Ă  100 °C, le sirop sera prĂȘt lorsqu’il atteindra 103,5 °C. Il faut adapter ces valeurs Ă  celle de la pression atmosphĂ©rique du lieu (altitude) et du moment. On peut aussi mesurer la densitĂ© du produit fini Ă  l’aide d’un hydromĂštre ou son indice de rĂ©fraction Ă  l’aide d’un rĂ©fractomĂštre. La densitĂ© doit correspondre Ă  66 degrĂ©s Brix au minimum. Dans la pratique industrielle, la technique de l’osmose inverse permet une premiĂšre Ă©tape de concentration pour une dĂ©pense Ă©nergĂ©tique moindre.

Le sirop d’Ă©rable est ensuite classĂ© par teinte : d’extra clair Ă  foncĂ©. Plus le sirop est clair, meilleure est la classe, mais moins le goĂ»t est prononcĂ©. Le sirop le plus fin est produit en mi-saison. Pendant longtemps, la prĂ©fĂ©rence est allĂ©e vers un sirop d’Ă©rable qui soit le plus clair possible. Jusqu’au XVIIIe siĂšcle, le sirop d’Ă©rable Ă©tait principalement consommĂ© directement par les producteurs ou par leurs proches. À l’Ă©poque, il Ă©tait pour ces personnes plus difficile et plus cher d’obtenir du sucre de canne que du sirop d’Ă©rable. On cherchait Ă  obtenir un sucre d’Ă©rable qui se rapproche le plus possible du sucre de canne. Aujourd’hui, certains reviennent Ă  des sirops plus colorĂ©s car ils ont un goĂ»t plus prononcĂ©.

Les diffĂ©rentes qualitĂ©s de sirop et d’eau d’Ă©rable influent sur le processus, gĂ©nĂ©ralement rĂ©alisĂ© Ă  la cabane Ă  sucre.
Classification
DiffĂ©rentes catĂ©gories de sirop d’Ă©rable.

Les acĂ©riculteurs classent le sirop d’Ă©rable en cinq catĂ©gories :

Extra clair : AA
Clair : A
Moyen : B
Ambré : C
Foncé : D

Certification biologique

Le sirop d’Ă©rable est un produit naturel sans aucun additif, cependant il peut ĂȘtre produit selon des normes plus strictes, les normes biologiques qui visent l’amĂ©nagement de l’érabliĂšre, la diversitĂ© vĂ©gĂ©tale, la fertilisation Ă©ventuelle, le contrĂŽle des ravageurs, l’entaillage, la collecte et la transformation de l’eau d’érable. Elles font l’objet d’un cahier des normes, respectĂ©es par les acĂ©riculteurs biologiques et contrĂŽlĂ©es de maniĂšre indĂ©pendante. Selon les sources, entre 12 %8 et 15 %9 du sirop d’érable produit au QuĂ©bec est certifiĂ© biologique.
Composition
Sirop d’Ă©rable
Valeur nutritionnelle moyenne
pour 100 g
Apport énergétique
Joules 1088 kJ
(Calories) (260 kcal)
Principaux composants
Glucides 67,04 g
– Amidon ? g
– Sucres 67,90 g
– Fibres alimentaires 0,0 g
Protéines 0,04 g
Lipides 0,06 g
– SaturĂ©s 0.007 mg
Eau 32,39 g
Minéraux & Oligo-éléments
Calcium 102 mg
Fer 0,11 mg
Magnésium 21 mg
Phosphore 2 mg
Potassium 212 mg
Sodium 12 mg
Zinc 1.47 mg
Vitamines
Provitamine A 0 mg
Vitamine A 0 mg
Vitamine B1 0.066 mg
Vitamine B2 1.270 mg
Vitamine B3 (ou PP) 0.081 mg
Vitamine B6 0.002 mg
Vitamine C 0 mg
Vitamine D 0 mg
Vitamine E 0 mg
Vitamine K 0 mg
Acides aminés
Acides gras
Source : USDA Nutrient Database (en)
modifier Consultez la documentation du modĂšle

Le sirop d’Ă©rable contient principalement des glucides, 68 % de sucrose (ou saccharose), 0,4 % de glucose et 0,3 % de fructose et de l’eau (31 %). Il est aussi riche en sels minĂ©raux tels que le potassium (1 300-3 900 ppm), le calcium (400-2 800 ppm), le magnĂ©sium (12-360 ppm), le manganĂšse (2-220) et le phosphore (79-183 ppm)10. Il contient aussi des acides organiques tels que l’acide malique (de 0,1 Ă  0,7 %), et en moindre quantitĂ© les acides citrique, succinique et fumarique (moins de 0,06 ppm)11. Le pH du sirop d’Ă©rable varie entre 5,6 et 7,911.

L’apport Ă©nergĂ©tique d’une cuillĂšre Ă  table (15 ml) de sirop d’Ă©rable est de 50 kilocalories2.
Produits dérivés
Étalage des produits Ă  base de sirop d’Ă©rable Ă  Ottawa

Plus on réduit par évaporation le sirop, plus on obtient un produit consistant.

La tire d’Ă©rable est constituĂ©e de sirop, chauffĂ© jusqu’Ă  avoir une consistance beaucoup plus ferme. Traditionnellement, on la dĂ©pose chaude sur de la neige, qui la fait refroidir, pour la dĂ©guster molle enroulĂ©e autour d’un bĂąton. Une fois refroidie, beaucoup plus dense, elle se vend aussi en pot et se mange Ă  la cuillĂšre.
Le beurre d’Ă©rable, sorte de fondant qui peut ĂȘtre utilisĂ© comme pĂąte Ă  tartiner. Le beurre d’Ă©rable ne contient pas de matiĂšre grasse, que du sucre.
Le sucre mou, moulé en pains, coulé en cornets ou en bonbons.
Le sucre dur (appelĂ© sucre d’Ă©rable), aussi moulĂ© en pains ou en bonbons.

Bénéfices sur la santé

Le sirop d’Ă©rable comporte des polyphĂ©nols et affiche une valeur ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) comparable Ă  celle de fruits et lĂ©gumes courants de notre alimentation, tel le brocolinote 1. Il faut noter que l’USDA ne considĂšre plus les valeurs ORAC comme ayant une valeur scientifique12. L’eau d’Ă©rable et le sirop d’Ă©rable contiennent Ă©galement d’importantes quantitĂ©s de terpĂšnes, et plus particuliĂšrement d’acide abscissique. Cet acide est reconnu, entre autres, pour stimuler le relĂąchement de l’insuline par les cellules pancrĂ©atiques et accroĂźtre la sensibilitĂ© des cellules adipeuses Ă  l’insuline, ce qui lui confĂšre des propriĂ©tĂ©s thĂ©rapeutiques pour le syndrome mĂ©tabolique et le diabĂšte13.

Le sirop d’Ă©rable du Canada renferme plus de 20 composĂ©s antioxydants selon des travaux du chercheur amĂ©ricain Navindra Seeram de l’UniversitĂ© de Rhode Island14.

Une Ă©tude menĂ©e par des chercheurs de l’UniversitĂ© McGill en 2015 a montrĂ© qu’un concentrĂ© de sirop d’Ă©rable rend les bactĂ©ries plus vulnĂ©rables aux antibiotiques. Selon les chercheurs, cette dĂ©couverte pourrait permettre d’attĂ©nuer les problĂšmes d’antibiorĂ©sistance et de rĂ©duire la quantitĂ© d’antibiotiques administrĂ©e Ă  un patient15.

Une Ă©quipe de chercheurs de l’UniversitĂ© Laval a dĂ©montrĂ© des propriĂ©tĂ©s anti-inflammatoires d’une molĂ©cule prĂ©sente dans le sirop d’Ă©rable, le quĂ©bĂ©col16. Cette molĂ©cule, ainsi que d’autres molĂ©cules dĂ©rivĂ©es, pourrait permettre un nouveau traitement pour l’arthrite ainsi que d’autres maladies inflammatoires. Les chercheurs ont Ă©tĂ© capables de synthĂ©tiser le quĂ©bĂ©col en laboratoire, ainsi que ses molĂ©cules dĂ©rivĂ©es.
Utilisations culinaires
Les gaufres accompagnĂ©es de sirop d’Ă©rable

La principale utilisation du sirop d’érable consiste Ă  en verser sur des crĂȘpes, des gaufres, du pain perdu ou des pancakes.
Il peut ĂȘtre utilisĂ© Ă  la place des fruits dans le yogourt nature pour en rehausser le goĂ»t. Il est aussi souvent ajoutĂ© aux cĂ©rĂ©ales pour la mĂȘme raison.
On le mĂ©lange Ă  la crĂšme glacĂ©e, au parfum de vanille ou nature, sous forme de sirop ou encore de brisures de pain de sucre d’érable, sa forme cristallisĂ©e, pour une texture plus croustillante.
Des vins apĂ©ritifs, mousseux ou plats sont fabriquĂ©s par fermentation du sirop d’érable pur ou macĂ©rĂ© avec d’autres herbes, plantes ou jus de fruits. Une distillation subsĂ©quente permet d’obtenir des liqueurs apĂ©ritives ou digestives, Ă  des degrĂ©s divers de concentration Ă©thylique. Des cuisines plus tendance, des pĂątisseries Ă©galement, usent judicieusement des divers alcools d’érable en finition ou en composition d’un mets, pour cuire, dĂ©glacer, flamber.
On l’utilise dans plusieurs recettes, dont celle des « fĂšves au lard » qui consiste Ă  les faire longuement cuire au four Ă  feu doux dans la graisse de porc avec bouquet garni et Ă  les servir toujours chaudes nappĂ©es de sirop dans un mĂ©lange sucrĂ©-salĂ©. Ce plat quĂ©bĂ©cois a traditionnellement utilisĂ© la gourgane pour sa taille et sa richesse nutritive, mais toute autre fĂšve cultivĂ©e localement remplissait bien cet office.
On badigeonne de sirop d’érable certaines viandes, dont le porc, le jambon ou les cĂŽtes levĂ©es avant de les cuire. Sa saveur particuliĂšre, son goĂ»t sucrĂ© et ses arĂŽmes naturels pĂ©nĂštrent la viande et il caramĂ©lise la surface des morceaux de viande rĂŽtis Ă  laquelle il donne un glaçage brillant.

Conseils

Des cristaux de saccharose peuvent prĂ©cipiter dans le sirop. Ce phĂ©nomĂšne s’explique par un dĂ©sĂ©quilibre entre la quantitĂ© de sucre et d’eau contenue dans le sirop. Pour remĂ©dier Ă  la situation, une solution consiste Ă  chauffer le sirop au bain-marie jusqu’Ă  ce que les cristaux soient dissous.
Lorsqu’on profite de la saison des sucres pour faire provision de sirop d’Ă©rable, il peut ĂȘtre conservĂ© au rĂ©frigĂ©rateur ou au congĂ©lateur jusqu’au prochain printemps. Une fois la boĂźte de conserve ouverte, le contenu peut ĂȘtre transfĂ©rĂ© dans un rĂ©cipient muni d’un couvercle hermĂ©tique.
L’apparition de pellicules blanchĂątres (moisissures) Ă  la surface peut ĂȘtre supprimĂ©e en passant le sirop Ă  travers un coton Ă  fromage et en l’amenant Ă  Ă©bullition ; une utilisation rapide est ensuite nĂ©cessaire.
Lors de l’Ă©bullition de l’eau d’Ă©rable, si celle-ci s’emporte comme le fait parfois le sucre chauffĂ©, il suffit d’y ajouter une faible quantitĂ© de corps gras, tel de la crĂšme ou du beurre.

Maple syrup
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Maple syrup Maple syrup.jpg
Bottled maple syrup (unlabeled)
Place of origin Canada
United States
Main ingredients Xylem sap (usually from sugar maple, red maple, or black maple)
Cookbook: Maple syrup Media: Maple syrup

Maple syrup is a syrup usually made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species. In cold climates, these trees store starch in their trunks and roots before the winter; the starch is then converted to sugar that rises in the sap in late winter and early spring. Maple trees can be tapped by drilling holes into their trunks and collecting the exuded sap, which is processed by heating to evaporate much of the water, leaving the concentrated syrup.

Maple syrup was first collected and used by the indigenous peoples, and the practice was adopted by European settlers, who gradually refined production methods. Technological improvements in the 1970s further refined syrup processing. The Canadian province of Quebec is by far the largest producer, responsible for about three-quarters of the world’s output; Canadian exports of maple syrup exceed C$145 million (approximately US$130.5 million) per year. Vermont is the largest producer in the United States, generating about 5.5 percent of the global supply.

Maple syrup is graded according to the Canada, United States, or Vermont scales based on its density and translucency. Sucrose is the most prevalent sugar in maple syrup. In Canada, syrups must be made exclusively from maple sap to qualify as maple syrup and must also be at least 66 percent sugar.[1] In the United States, a syrup must be made almost entirely from maple sap to be labelled as "maple", though states such as Vermont and New York have more restrictive definitions (see below).

Maple syrup is often eaten with pancakes, waffles, French toast, or oatmeal and porridge. It is also used as an ingredient in baking, and as a sweetener or flavouring agent. Culinary experts have praised its unique flavour, although the chemistry responsible is not fully understood.[2]

Contents

1 Sources
2 History
2.1 Indigenous peoples
2.2 Europeans
2.3 Since 1850
3 Processing
3.1 Off-flavours
4 Production
5 Commerce
6 Grades
6.1 Old grading system
7 Food and nutrition
8 Imitations and substitutions
9 Cultural significance
10 See also
11 References
11.1 Notes
11.2 Cited works
12 Further reading
13 External links

Sources
A sugar maple tree

Three species of maple trees are predominantly used to produce maple syrup: the sugar maple (Acer saccharum), the black maple (A. nigrum), and the red maple (A. rubrum),[3] because of the high sugar content (roughly two to five percent) in the sap of these species.[4] The black maple is included as a subspecies or variety in a more broadly viewed concept of A. saccharum, the sugar maple, by some botanists.[5] Of these, the red maple has a shorter season because it buds earlier than sugar and black maples, which alters the flavour of the sap.[6]

A few other (but not all) species of maple (Acer) are also sometimes used as sources of sap for producing maple syrup, including the box elder or Manitoba maple (Acer negundo),[7] the silver maple (A. saccharinum),[8] and the bigleaf maple (A. macrophyllum).[9] Similar syrups may also be produced from birch or palm trees, among other sources.[10][11]
History
Indigenous peoples
"Sugar-Making Among the Indians in the North" (19th-century illustration)

Indigenous peoples living in northeastern North America were the first groups known to have produced maple syrup and maple sugar. According to aboriginal oral traditions, as well as archaeological evidence, maple tree sap was being processed into syrup long before Europeans arrived in the region.[12][13] There are no authenticated accounts of how maple syrup production and consumption began,[14] but various legends exist; one of the most popular involves maple sap being used in place of water to cook venison served to a chief.[13] Other stories credit the development of maple syrup production to Nanabozho, Glooskap, or the squirrel. Aboriginal tribes developed rituals around sugar-making, celebrating the Sugar Moon (the first full moon of spring) with a Maple Dance.[15] Many aboriginal dishes replaced the salt traditional in European cuisine with maple sugar or syrup.[13]

The Algonquians recognized maple sap as a source of energy and nutrition. At the beginning of the spring thaw, they used stone tools to make V-shaped incisions in tree trunks; they then inserted reeds or concave pieces of bark to run the sap into buckets, which were often made from birch bark.[14] The maple sap was concentrated either by dropping hot cooking stones into the buckets[16] or by leaving them exposed to the cold temperatures overnight and disposing of the layer of ice that formed on top. While there was widespread agriculture in Mesoamerica and the Southeast and Southwest regions of the United States, the production of maple syrup is one of only a few agricultural processes in the Northeast that is not a European colonial import.[14]
Europeans

In the early stages of European colonization in northeastern North America, local Indigenous peoples showed the arriving colonists how to tap the trunks of certain types of maples during the spring thaw to harvest the sap.[17] André Thevet, the "Royal Cosmographer of France", wrote about Jacques Cartier drinking maple sap during his Canadian voyages.[18] By 1680, European settlers and fur traders were involved in harvesting maple products.[19] However, rather than making incisions in the bark, the Europeans used the method of drilling tapholes in the trunks with augers. During the 17th and 18th centuries, processed maple sap was used primarily as a source of concentrated sugar, in both liquid and crystallized-solid form, as cane sugar had to be imported from the West Indies.[14][15]

Maple sugaring parties typically began to operate at the start of the spring thaw in regions of woodland with sufficiently large numbers of maples.[17] Syrup makers first bored holes in the trunks, usually more than one hole per large tree; they then inserted wooden spouts into the holes and hung a wooden bucket from the protruding end of each spout to collect the sap. The buckets were commonly made by cutting cylindrical segments from a large tree trunk and then hollowing out each segment’s core from one end of the cylinder, creating a seamless, watertight container.[14] Sap filled the buckets, and was then either transferred to larger holding vessels (barrels, large pots, or hollowed-out wooden logs), often mounted on sledges or wagons pulled by draft animals, or carried in buckets or other convenient containers.[20] The sap-collection buckets were returned to the spouts mounted on the trees, and the process was repeated for as long as the flow of sap remained "sweet". The specific weather conditions of the thaw period were, and still are, critical in determining the length of the sugaring season.[21] As the weather continues to warm, a maple tree’s normal early spring biological process eventually alters the taste of the sap, making it unpalatable, perhaps due to an increase in amino acids.[8]

The boiling process was very time-consuming. The harvested sap was transported back to the party’s base camp, where it was then poured into large vessels (usually made from metal) and boiled to achieve the desired consistency.[14] The sap was usually transported using large barrels pulled by horses or oxen to a central collection point, where it was processed either over a fire built out in the open or inside a shelter built for that purpose (the "sugar shack").[14][22]
Since 1850
A bucket used to collect sap, built circa 1820

Around the time of the American Civil War, syrup makers started using large, flat sheet metal pans as they were more efficient for boiling than heavy, rounded iron kettles, because of a greater surface area for evaporation.[22] Around this time, cane sugar replaced maple sugar as the dominant sweetener in the US; as a result, producers focused marketing efforts on maple syrup. The first evaporator, used to heat and concentrate sap, was patented in 1858. In 1872, an evaporator was developed that featured two pans and a metal arch or firebox, which greatly decreased boiling time.[14] Around 1900, producers bent the tin that formed the bottom of a pan into a series of flues, which increased the heated surface area of the pan and again decreased boiling time. Some producers also added a finishing pan, a separate batch evaporator, as a final stage in the evaporation process.[22]

Buckets began to be replaced with plastic bags, which allowed people to see at a distance how much sap had been collected. Syrup producers also began using tractors to haul vats of sap from the trees being tapped (the sugarbush) to the evaporator. Some producers adopted motor-powered tappers and metal tubing systems to convey sap from the tree to a central collection container, but these techniques were not widely used.[14] Heating methods also diversified: modern producers use wood, oil, natural gas, propane, or steam to evaporate sap.[22] Modern filtration methods were perfected to prevent contamination of the syrup.[23]
Two taps in a maple tree, using plastic tubing for sap collection

A large number of technological changes took place during the 1970s. Plastic tubing systems that had been experimental since the early part of the century were perfected, and the sap came directly from the tree to the evaporator house.[24] Vacuum pumps were added to the tubing systems, and preheaters were developed to recycle heat lost in the steam. Producers developed reverse-osmosis machines to take a portion of water out of the sap before it was boiled, increasing processing efficiency.[14]

Improvements in tubing and vacuum pumps, new filtering techniques, "supercharged" preheaters, and better storage containers have since been developed. Research continues on pest control and improved woodlot management.[14] In 2009, researchers at the University of Vermont unveiled a new type of tap that prevents backflow of sap into the tree, reducing bacterial contamination and preventing the tree from attempting to heal the bore hole.[25] Experiments show that it may be possible to use saplings in a plantation instead of mature trees dramatically boosting productivity per acre.[26]
Processing
A traditional bucket tap and a plastic-bag tap

Production methods have been streamlined since colonial days, yet remain basically unchanged. Sap must first be collected and boiled down to obtain pure syrup without chemical agents or preservatives. Maple syrup is made by boiling between 20 and 50 volumes of sap (depending on its concentration) over an open fire until 1 volume of syrup is obtained, usually at a temperature 4.1 °C (7.4 °F) over the boiling point of water. As the boiling point of water varies with changes in air pressure the correct value for pure water is determined at the place where the syrup is being produced, each time evaporation is begun and periodically throughout the day.[22][27] Syrup can be boiled entirely over one heat source or can be drawn off into smaller batches and boiled at a more controlled temperature.[28]

Boiling the syrup is a tightly controlled process, which ensures appropriate sugar content. Syrup boiled too long will eventually crystallize, whereas under-boiled syrup will be watery, and will quickly spoil. The finished syrup has a density of 66° on the Brix scale (a hydrometric scale used to measure sugar solutions).[29] The syrup is then filtered to remove sugar sand, crystals made up largely of sugar and calcium malate.[30] These crystals are not toxic, but create a "gritty" texture in the syrup if not filtered out.[31] The filtered syrup is graded and packaged while still hot, usually at a temperature of 82 °C (180 °F) or greater. The containers are turned over after being sealed to sterilize the cap with the hot syrup. Packages can be made of metal, glass, or coated plastic, depending on volume and target market.[32] The syrup can also be heated longer and further processed to create a variety of other maple products, including maple sugar, maple butter or cream, and maple candy or taffy.[33]
File:MapleSyrupDrop.ogvPlay media
Maple Syrup harvesting
Off-flavours

Off-flavours can sometimes develop during the production of maple syrup; causes include contaminants in the boiling apparatus, such as paint or cleanser; changes in the sap, such as fermentation when it has been left sitting too long; and changes in the tree, such as "buddy sap" late in the season when budding has begun.[34] In some circumstances it is possible to remove off-flavours through processing.[35]
Production
A "sugar shack" where sap is boiling.
Maple syrup in Quebec is typically sold in cans with this distinctive design
Maple sap being transformed to syrup

Maple syrup production is centred in northeastern North America; however, given the correct weather conditions, it can be made wherever suitable species of maple trees grow.

A maple syrup production farm is called a "sugarbush" or "sugarwood". Sap is often boiled in a "sugar house" (also known as a "sugar shack," "sugar shanty," or cabane Ă  sucre), a building louvered at the top to vent the steam from the boiling sap.[36]

Maples are usually tapped beginning at 30 to 40 years of age. Each tree can support between one and three taps, depending on its trunk diameter. The average maple tree will produce 35 to 50 litres (9.2 to 13.2 US gal) of sap per season, up to 12 litres (3.2 US gal) per day.[37] This is roughly equal to 7% of its total sap. Seasons last for four to eight weeks, depending on the weather.[38] During the day, starch stored in the roots for the winter rises through the trunk as sugary sap, allowing it to be tapped.[21] Sap is not tapped at night because the temperature drop inhibits sap flow, although taps are typically left in place overnight.[39] Some producers also tap in autumn, though this practice is less common than spring tapping. Maples can continue to be tapped for sap until they are over 100 years old.[37]
Commerce

Until the 1930s, the United States produced most of the world’s maple syrup.[40] Today, after rapid growth in the 1990s, Canada produces more than 80 percent of the world’s maple syrup, producing about 26,500,000 litres (7,000,000 US gal) in 2004. The vast majority of this comes from the province of Quebec, which is the world’s largest producer, with about 75 percent of global production totalling 24,660,000 litres (6,510,000 US gal) in 2005.[41] As of 2003, Quebec had more than 7,000 producers, collectively making over 24,000,000 litres (6,300,000 US gal) of syrup.[42] Production in Quebec is controlled through a supply management system, with producers receiving quota allotments from the Federation of Quebec Maple Syrup Producers (FĂ©dĂ©ration des producteurs acĂ©ricoles du QuĂ©bec), which also maintains reserves of syrup.[43] Canada exports more than 9,400,000 litres (2,500,000 US gal) of maple syrup per year, valued at more than C$145 million.[24][44] The provinces of Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island produce smaller amounts of syrup.[41]

The Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan produce maple syrup using the sap of the box elder or Manitoba maple (Acer negundo).[7] A Manitoba maple tree’s yield is usually less than half that of a similar sugar maple tree.[45] Manitoba maple syrup has a slightly different flavour from sugar-maple syrup, because it contains less sugar and the tree’s sap flows more slowly.

Vermont is the biggest US producer, with over 1,320,000 US gallons (5,000,000 L) during the 2013 season, followed by New York with 574,000 US gallons (2,170,000 L) and Maine with 450,000 US gallons (1,700,000 L). Wisconsin, Ohio, New Hampshire, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Connecticut all produced marketable quantities of maple syrup of less than 265,000 US gallons (1,000,000 L) each in 2013.[46] As of 2003, Vermont produced about 5.5 percent of the global syrup supply.[42]

Maple syrup has been produced on a small scale in some other countries, notably Japan and South Korea.[47] However, in South Korea in particular, it is traditional to consume maple sap, called gorosoe, instead of processing it into syrup.[48]

In 2013, 65% of Canadian maple syrup exports went to the United States (a value of C$178 million), 9% to Japan (C$25 million), 8% to Germany (C$22 million) and 4.3% to the United Kingdom (C$12 million).[49]
Grades
See also: Food grading

Following an effort from the International Maple Syrup Institute (IMSI) and many maple syrup producer associations, both Canada and the United States have altered their laws regarding the classification of maple syrup to be uniform. Whereas in the past each state or province had their own laws on the classification of maple syrup, now those laws state the same grades throughout. This had been a work in progress for several years, and most of the finalization of the new grading system was made in 2014. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency announced in the Canada Gazette on 28 June 2014 that rules for the sale of maple syrup would be amended to include new descriptors, at the request of the IMSI.[50]

As of December 31, 2014, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)[51] and as of March 2, 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)[52] issued revised standards on the classification of maple syrup as follows:

Grade A
Golden Colour and Delicate Taste
Amber Colour and Rich Taste
Dark Colour and Robust Taste
Very Dark Colour and Strong Taste
Processing Grade
Substandard

As long as maple syrup does not have an off-flavor and is of a uniform color and clean and free from cloudiness, turbidity, sediment, it can be identified as one of the A grades above. If it does exhibit any of the problems mentioned earlier, it does not meet Grade A requirements and must be labeled as Processing Grade maple syrup and may not be sold to the consumer. If maple syrup does not meet the requirements of Processing Grade maple syrup (including a fairly characteristic maple taste), it is classified as Substandard.[52]

As of February 2015, this new grading system has been accepted and made law by most maple-producing states and provinces, other than Ontario, Quebec, and Ohio. Vermont, in an effort to "jump-start" the new grading regulations, adopted the new grading system as of January 1, 2014, after the grade changes passed the Senate and House in 2013. Maine passed a bill to take effect as soon as both Canada and the United States adopted the new grades. They are allowing a one-year grace period. In New York, the new grade changes became law on January 1, 2015, with a one-year grace period. New Hampshire did not require legislative approval and so the new grade laws became effective as of December 16, 2014, and were required to be complied with as of January 1, 2016 at the latest.[53]

Golden and Amber grades typically have a milder flavour than Dark and Very dark, which are both dark and have an intense maple flavour.[54] The darker grades of syrup are used primarily for cooking and baking, although some specialty dark syrups are produced for table use.[55] Syrup harvested earlier in the season tends to yield a lighter color.[56] With the new grading system, the classification of maple syrup depends ultimately on its translucence. Golden has to be more than 75 percent translucent, Amber has to be 50.0 to 74.9 percent translucent, Dark has to be 25.0 to 49.9 percent translucent, and Very Dark is any product less than 25.0 percent translucent.[52]
Old grading system
Old US maple syrup grades, left to right: Grade A Light Amber ("Fancy"), Grade A Medium Amber, Grade A Dark Amber, Grade B

In Canada, maple syrup was classified prior to December 31, 2014, by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) as one of three grades, each with several colour classes: Canada No. 1, including Extra Light, Light, and Medium; No. 2 Amber; and finally No. 3 Dark or any other ungraded category. Producers in Ontario or QuĂ©bec may have followed either federal or provincial grading guidelines. QuĂ©bec’s and Ontario’s guidelines differed slightly from the federal: there were two "number" categories in QuĂ©bec (Number 1, with four colour classes, and 2, with five colour classes).[57] As in QuĂ©bec, Ontario’s producers had two "number" grades: 1, with three colour classes; and 2, with one colour class, which was typically referred to as "Ontario Amber" when produced and sold in that province only.[58] A typical year’s yield for a maple syrup producer will be about 25 to 30 percent of each of the #1 colours, 10 percent #2 Amber, and 2 percent #3 Dark.[29]

The United States used (some states still do, as they await state regulation) different grading standards. Maple syrup was divided into two major grades: Grade A and Grade B. Grade A was further divided into three subgrades: Light Amber (sometimes known as Fancy), Medium Amber, and Dark Amber. The Vermont Agency of Agriculture Food and Markets used a similar grading system of colour, and is roughly equivalent, especially for lighter syrups, but using letters: "AA", "A", etc.[59][60] The Vermont grading system differed from the US system in maintaining a slightly higher standard of product density (measured on the Baumé scale). New Hampshire maintained a similar standard, but not a separate state grading scale. The Vermont-graded product had 0.9 percent more sugar and less water in its composition than US-graded. One grade of syrup not for table use, called commercial or Grade C, was also produced under the Vermont system.[54]
Food and nutrition
Maple syrup Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,093 kJ (261 kcal)
Carbohydrates

67.09 g
Sugars 59.53 g
Dietary fiber 0 g
Fat

0.20 g
Protein

0 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(1%)
0.006 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(1%)
0.01 mg
Niacin (B3)
(0%)
0.03 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)

(1%)
0.036 mg
Vitamin B6
(0%)
0.002 mg
Minerals
Calcium
(7%)
67 mg
Iron
(9%)
1.20 mg
Magnesium
(4%)
14 mg
Manganese
(157%)
3.298 mg
Phosphorus
(0%)
2 mg
Potassium
(4%)
204 mg
Zinc
(44%)
4.16 mg

Units
ÎŒg = micrograms ‱ mg = milligrams
IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

The basic ingredient in maple syrup is the sap from the xylem of sugar maple or various other species of maple trees. It consists primarily of sucrose and water, with small amounts of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose from the invert sugar created in the boiling process.[61] Accordingly, sugars comprise 90% of total carbohydrates which contribute nearly all of the 261 calories per 100 g serving (right table).

Maple syrup generally is devoid of micronutrient content (right table), excepting appreciable amounts of zinc and manganese which contribute 44% and 157% of the Daily Value, respectively, per 100 g of syrup consumed (right table).[62]

Maple syrup also contains trace amounts of amino acids which increase in content as sap flow occurs.[63] Additionally, maple syrup contains a wide variety of volatile organic compounds, including vanillin, hydroxybutanone, and propionaldehyde. It is not yet known exactly what compounds are responsible for maple syrup’s distinctive flavour,[30] however its primary flavour contributing compounds are maple furanone, strawberry furanone, and maltol.[64]

New compounds have been identified in maple syrup, one of which is quebecol, a natural phenolic compound created when the maple sap is boiled to create syrup.[65]

One author described maple syrup as "a unique ingredient, smooth- and silky-textured, with a sweet, distinctive flavour – hints of caramel with overtones of toffee will not do – and a rare colour, amber set alight. Maple flavour is, well, maple flavour, uniquely different from any other."[39] Agriculture Canada has developed a "flavour wheel" that details 91 unique flavours that can be present in maple syrup. These flavours are divided into 13 families: vanilla, empyreumatic (burnt), milky, fruity, floral, spicy, foreign deterioration or environment, maple, confectionery, plants forest-humus-cereals, herbaceous, or ligneous.[66] These flavours are evaluated using a procedure similar to wine tasting.[67] Other culinary experts praise its unique flavour.[68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75]

Maple syrup and its various artificial imitations are widely used as toppings for pancakes, waffles, and French toast in North America. They can also be used to flavour a variety of foods, including fritters, ice cream, hot cereal, fresh fruit, and sausages. It is also used as sweetener for granola, applesauce, baked beans, candied sweet potatoes, winter squash, cakes, pies, breads, tea, coffee, and hot toddies. Maple syrup can also be used as a replacement for honey in wine (mead).[76]
Imitations and substitutions

In the United States, "maple syrup" must be made almost entirely from maple sap, although small amounts of substances such as salt may be added.[77] "Maple-flavoured" syrups include maple syrup but may contain additional ingredients.[78] "Pancake syrup", "waffle syrup", "table syrup", and similarly named syrups are substitutes which are less expensive than maple syrup. In these syrups, the primary ingredient is most often high fructose corn syrup flavoured with sotolon; they have no genuine maple content, and are usually thickened far beyond the viscosity of maple syrup.[79] The fenugreek seed, a spice with high amounts of sotolon, can be prepared to have a maple-like flavour, and is used to make a very strong commercial flavouring that is similar to maple syrup, but much less expensive; one such syrup, Mapleine, was popular during the Great Depression.[80][81] American labelling laws prohibit imitation syrups from having "maple" in their names.[82]

In Canada, maple syrup must be made entirely from maple sap, and syrup must have a density of 66° on the Brix scale to be marketed as maple syrup.[29] Québécois sometimes refer to imitation maple syrup as sirop de poteau ("pole syrup"), a joke referring to the syrup as having been made by tapping telephone poles.[83]

Imitation syrups are generally cheaper than maple syrup, but tend to taste artificial. A 2009 Cook’s Illustrated comparison between top-selling maple and imitation syrups consistently rated the real maple brands (Maple Grove Farms, Highland Sugarworks, Camp Maple, Spring Tree, and Maple Gold) above the imitation brands tested (Eggo, Aunt Jemima, Mrs. Butterworth’s, Log Cabin, and Hungry Jack).[84] In the United States, consumers generally prefer imitation syrups, likely because of the significantly lower cost.[85]
Cultural significance
The motif on the flag of Canada is a maple leaf.

Maple syrup and maple sugar were used during the American Civil War and by abolitionists in the years prior to the war because most cane sugar and molasses were produced by Southern slaves.[86][87] Because of food rationing during the Second World War, people in the northeastern United States were encouraged to stretch their sugar rations by sweetening foods with maple syrup and maple sugar,[14] and recipe books were printed to help housewives employ this alternative source.[88]

Maple products are considered emblematic of Canada, in particular Quebec, and are frequently sold in tourist shops and airports as souvenirs from Canada. The sugar maple’s leaf has come to symbolize Canada, and is depicted on the country’s flag.[89] Several US states, including New York, Vermont and Wisconsin, have the sugar maple as their state tree.[90] A scene of sap collection is depicted on the Vermont state quarter, issued in 2001

Posted by Rubiconrouge on 2016-04-04 23:04:28

Tagged: , ppff5f , une société Yahoo

Kra Praow

Kra Praow

By David Hu

Like most people, I love Thai food. And I’m lucky enough to have a girlfriend from Thailand to show me how to cook it myself.

Kra Praow, a stir-fried mixture of ground meat, chiles and fresh basil leaves, is my favorite. I learned to make it from Lynn’s mom, who will be checking out this video from Thailand to see if I’ve cooked in correctly, so the pressure is on!

This is a very versatile dish with some great variations.

* You can add sliced onion when you stir-fry. It’s not authentic, but it adds sweetness.
* You can add green onions, cut in 2-inch lengths for color.
* Instead of ground pork, you can use shrimp, clams, ground beef, ground chicken or turkey, or even drained canned tuna.
* You can top each serving with a sunny-side up egg; break the yolk when you start eating to let the yolk drizzle into the Kra Praow to create creamy goodness.

For the full recipe and video click here.

Special Fork is a recipe website for your smartphone and PC that solves the daily dinnertime dilemma: what to cook now! Our bloggers blog Monday through Friday to give you cooking inspiration. Check out our recipe database for quick ideas that take no more than 30 minutes of prep time. Join the conversation on Facebook and follow us on Twitter.

Posted by Special Fork on 2011-05-04 19:44:14

Tagged: , bird’s eye chilies , easy Thai food , fish sauce , kra praow , nam pla , quick Thai food , recipe , Special Fork , Thai basil , Thai food , food , cooking

Healthy Fats

Healthy Fats

Reminder, Stephen will be the guest on Conscious Talk Radio (1150 AM KKNW Seattle) that airs live Wednesday, Sept. 24th, 2014 from 7am to 8am pst.

Here’s the link to listen online or catch the podcast at a later time. 1150kknw.com/listen/

I wish I could say that it’s common knowledge how important Omega 3 fatty acids and other healthy fats are in the diet, but my clinical work experience reminds me that it still seems a secret.

Not only are there many research studies that show the heart health benefits of cold water fish and fish oil (EPA, DHA) in the diet, but it even lowers triglycerides and raises HDL (the “good” cholesterol). Supplementing 1800mg EPA a day even helps lower high blood pressure and decrease belly fat. Now there’s an approach that should be a standard in health care! Other healthy fats include Tocotrienols, a type of vitamin E, that lower serum cholesterol level. Plant fats are beneficial too. Phytosterols are plant sterols that can inhibit absorption of cholesterol. These are part of the recommended “diet and lifestyle changes” that people with elevated cholesterol levels need to explore with their physicians.

Stephen and I delight in using healthy fats in our cooking.

Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCTs), which can be derived from coconut fats, are available bottled and ready to add to recipes.

Not only do we add MCTs to our Kick-Start shake (see The Metabolic Makeover: It’s All About Energy! by Stephen Cherniske and Natalie Kather, MD, Chapter 7) and pre-work out shakes, but also add it to soups and salads. Stephen uses it to make Super Soup:

Steam beets, cauliflower, kale or chard, carrots. Then blend these with an organic raw apple. Add 1/8 cup MCTs and Yum! This creamy soup is nutrient-packed and a great way to start a meal. If you want it as a snack, then don’t forget to add 8- 10 gram protein intake with it (we don’t want unopposed carbs).

These MCTs are converted in the body to ketone bodies, which are instant energy! The brain loves these ketone bodies. When the body makes ketones (known as ketosis) the brain functions better. Because of this, a ketosis-oriented diet in the diet-of-choice for people with seizure disorders. Now, new research shows that MCTs and this diet approach is also beneficial in improving cognition for those with Alzheimer’s dementia.

Best Wishes in Health!
Natalie Kather, MD bit.ly/1m91OFf

Posted by themetabolicmakeover on 2014-09-17 16:07:22

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